Jul 24, 2010

Identification of muscle spindles in the submentalis muscle of the marine toad, Bufo marinus and its potential proprioceptive capacity in jaw-tongue coordination

The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Rakesh Mandal, Curtis W Anderson

Abstract

The muscle spindle has been well studied in mammals, birds, and some reptiles, but little is known about its structure and function in amphibians. Several physiological and behavioral studies in frogs and toads suggest that the submentalis muscle has an important role in jaw-tongue coordination during feeding through sensory feedback mechanisms. Evidence suggests this mechanism is generated through muscle spindles, or spindle-like structures. However, the presence of these has not been investigated. Using charged fluorescent molecules that are taken up by endocytosis at activated synapses, numerous muscle spindles were identified in the submentalis muscle of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. These were further verified with brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy. The results provide anatomical evidence for muscle spindles in the submentalis muscle and suggest a mechanism for the submentalis muscle's role in jaw-tongue coordination in B. marinus.

Mentioned in this Paper

Amphibians
Spindle
Jaw
Endocytosis
Bufo marinus
Fluorescent stain
Synapses
Microscopy
Benign Neoplasm of Tongue
Reptiles

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.