Identification of S-sulfonation and S-thiolation of a novel transthyretin Phe33Cys variant from a patient diagnosed with familial transthyretin amyloidosis
Familial transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with a variant form of the plasma carrier protein transthyretin (TTR). Amyloid fibrils consisting of variant TTR, wild-type TTR, and TTR fragments deposit in tissues and organs. The diagnosis of ATTR relies on the identification of pathologic TTR variants in plasma of symptomatic individuals who have biopsy proven amyloid disease. Previously, we have developed a mass spectrometry-based approach, in combination with direct DNA sequence analysis, to fully identify TTR variants. Our methodology uses immunoprecipitation to isolate TTR from serum, and electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) peptide mapping to identify TTR variants and posttranslational modifications. Unambiguous identification of the amino acid substitution is performed using tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis and confirmed by direct DNA sequence analysis. The MS and MS/MS analyses also yield information about posttranslational modifications. Using this approach, we have recently identified a novel pathologic TTR variant. This variant has an amino acid substitution (Phe --> Cys) at position 33. In addition, like the Cys10 present in t...Continue Reading
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