Identification of the 64K autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes as the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase

Nature
S BaekkeskovP D Camilli

Abstract

The pancreatic islet beta-cell autoantigen of relative molecular mass 64,000 (64K), which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase, the biosynthesizing enzyme of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Pancreatic beta cells and a subpopulation of central nervous system neurons express high levels of this enzyme. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase with a higher titre and increased epitope recognition compared with those usually associated with IDDM are found in stiff-man syndrome, a rare neurological disorder characterized by a high coincidence with IDDM.

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Related Concepts

Stiff-Person Syndrome
Autoantibodies
GAD1
Antigenic Specificity
Brain
Glutamate Decarboxylase
Streptozotocin Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent
Diabetes, Autoimmune
Autoantigens

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