The pancreatic islet beta-cell autoantigen of relative molecular mass 64,000 (64K), which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase, the biosynthesizing enzyme of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Pancreatic beta cells and a subpopulation of central nervous system neurons express high levels of this enzyme. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase with a higher titre and increased epitope recognition compared with those usually associated with IDDM are found in stiff-man syndrome, a rare neurological disorder characterized by a high coincidence with IDDM.
Islet injury induces neurotrophin expression in pancreatic cells and reactive gliosis of peri-islet Schwann cells
Autoantibody negative new onset type 1 diabetic patients lacking high risk HLA alleles in a caucasian population: are these type 1b diabetes cases?
Endogenous expression levels of autoantigens influence success or failure of DNA immunizations to prevent type 1 diabetes: addition of IL-4 increases safety
Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis by glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in stiff-man syndrome
Correlation between infection and the onset of the giant cell (temporal) arteritis syndrome. A trigger mechanism?
Review of diabetes: identification of markers for early detection, glycemic control, and monitoring clinical complications
Mapping of antigenic epitopes within the recombinant human preproinsulin related to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of coxsackie B4 virus of human origin that induces diabetes in mice and its comparison with nondiabetogenic coxsackie B4 JBV strain
Synaptic vesicle-associated glutamate decarboxylase: identification and relationship to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, autonomic nerve antibodies and autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients
Human autoantibodies react with glutamic acid decarboxylase antigen in human and rat but not in mouse pancreatic islets
Monoclonal antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against rat beta cells detected in vitro does not cause beta-cell destruction in vivo
Antibodies to the M(r) 64,000 (64K) protein in islet cell antibody positive non-diabetic individuals indicate high risk for impaired beta-cell function
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies are additional predictive markers of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in high risk individuals
Diagnostic sensitivity of immunodominant epitopes of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoantibodies in childhood IDDM
Value of antibodies to GAD65 combined with islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies for predicting IDDM in a childhood population
Distinct cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies with different risks for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
Risk for developing type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and the presence of islet 64K antibodies
Polymorphic structural features of modelled HLA-DQ molecules segregate according to susceptibility or resistance to IDDM
A multiplicity of protein antigens in subcellular fractions of rat insulinoma tissue are able to stimulate T cells obtained from non-obese diabetic mice
Xenografts of porcine islets immunoprotected in hollow fibres reduce the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
Persisting antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are not associated with neuropathy
A novel radioligand binding assay to determine diagnostic accuracy of isoform-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in childhood IDDM
Assignment of the rat genes coding for dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD1 and GAD2)
Autoantibodies against a novel 51 kDa islet antigen and glutamate decarboxylase isoforms in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I
Characterization of monoclonal islet cell reactive autoantibodies from the diabetic biobreeding (BB/OK) rat
Synaptophysin-containing microvesicles transport heat-shock protein hsp60 in insulin-secreting beta cells
A convulsant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, decreases the level of GABA and GAD in rat pancreatic islets and brain
High concentration of GABA and high glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat pancreatic islets and human insulinoma
Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications
P29: a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated membrane protein present in small clear vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in a patient with stiff-man syndrome, epilepsy, and type I diabetes mellitus
Antibodies to a 64,000 Mr human islet cell antigen precede the clinical onset of insulin-dependent diabetes
Effect of muscimol on glucose-stimulated somatostatin and insulin release from the isolated, perfused rat pancreas
Synapsin I (protein I), a nerve terminal-specific phosphoprotein. III. Its association with synaptic vesicles studied in a highly purified synaptic vesicle preparation
Autoantibodies in newly diagnosed diabetic children immunoprecipitate human pancreatic islet cell proteins
Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.
Autoimmune Diabetes & Tolerance
Patients with type I diabetes lack insulin-producing beta cells due to the loss of immunological tolerance and autoimmune disease. Discover the latest research on targeting tolerance to prevent diabetes.