Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been successfully used as a non-invasive therapeutic intervention for several neurological disorders in the clinic as well as an investigative tool for basic neuroscience. rTMS has been shown to induce long-term changes in neuronal circuits in vivo. Such long-term effects of rTMS have been investigated using behavioral, imaging, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, but there is limited understanding of the immediate effects of TMS on neurons. We investigated the immediate effects of high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS on the activity of cortical neurons in an effort to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms activated by rTMS. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute rat brain slices and calcium imaging of cultured primary neurons to examine changes in neuronal activity and intracellular calcium respectively. Our results indicate that each TMS pulse caused an immediate and transient activation of voltage gated sodium channels (9.6 ± 1.8 nA at -45 mV, p value < 0.01) in neurons. Short 500 ms 20 Hz rTMS stimulation induced action potentials in a subpopulation of neurons, and significantly increased the steady state current of the neurons at near threshold ...Continue Reading
Modelling magnetic coil excitation of human cerebral cortex with a peripheral nerve immersed in a brain-shaped volume conductor: the significance of fiber bending in excitation
Magnetic coil stimulation of straight and bent amphibian and mammalian peripheral nerve in vitro: locus of excitation
Long-term repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholecystokinin mRNA, but not neuropeptide tyrosine mRNA in specific areas of rat brain
Animal models of the mechanisms of action of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS): comparisons with electroconvulsive shock (ECS)
Frequency-dependent synaptic potentiation, depression and spike timing induced by Hebbian pairing in cortical pyramidal neurons
Brain effects of TMS delivered over prefrontal cortex in depressed adults: role of stimulation frequency and coil-cortex distance
Promoting women. Mentoring is a helpful tool not only for helping women to climb the career ladder but also to make men more aware of the specific problems women face
Changes in visual cortex excitability in blind subjects as demonstrated by transcranial magnetic stimulation
Effects of different frequencies of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the forced swim test model of depression in rats
Transcranial magnetic stimulation induces increases in extracellular levels of dopamine and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens
Effects of acute repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on dopamine release in the rat dorsolateral striatum
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for protection against delayed neuronal death induced by transient ischemia
A double blind study showing that two weeks of daily repetitive TMS over the left or right temporoparietal cortex reduces symptoms in patients with schizophrenia who are having treatment-refractory auditory hallucinations
Effect of chronic and acute low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on spatial memory in rats
Slow repetitive TMS for drug-resistant epilepsy: clinical and EEG findings of a placebo-controlled trial
Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on the expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarct
High- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation differentially activates c-Fos and zif268 protein expression in the rat brain
Motor threshold in transcranial magnetic stimulation: the impact of white matter fiber orientation and skull-to-cortex distance
Biophysical foundations underlying TMS: setting the stage for an effective use of neurostimulation in the cognitive neurosciences
Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on mood in depressed patients: relationship to baseline cerebral activity on PET
State-dependent variability of neuronal responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the visual cortex
rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates dopamine release in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex
Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation for acute treatment of migraine with aura: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-controlled trial
Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS
Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on markers for neuroplasticity: differential outcomes in anesthetized and awake animals
Increase in cortical pyramidal cell excitability accompanies depression-like behavior in mice: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces functional and structural plasticity of excitatory postsynapses in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures
Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention
Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces plasticity of excitatory postsynapses on proximal dendrites of cultured mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons
Developmental Changes in Electrophysiological Properties and a Transition from Electrical to Chemical Coupling between Excitatory Layer 4 Neurons in the Rat Barrel Cortex
Effect of the combination of high-frequency repetitive magnetic stimulation and neurotropin on injured sciatic nerve regeneration in rats
Novel Neuromodulation Techniques to Assess Interhemispheric Communication in Neural Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases
rTMS-Induced Changes in Glutamatergic and Dopaminergic Systems: Relevance to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders
Could non-invasive brain-stimulation prevent neuronal degeneration upon ion channel re-distribution and ion accumulation after demyelination?
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the cognition and neuronal excitability of mice
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Plasticity Mechanisms: TMS-Related Gene Expression and Morphology Changes in a Human Neuron-Like Cell Model
Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Improving Cognition in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Protocol for a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Simultaneous quantification of dopamine, serotonin, their metabolites and amino acids by LC-MS/MS in mouse brain following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
A Pilot Trial Examining the Merits of Combining Amantadine and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as an Intervention for Persons With Disordered Consciousness After TBI.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation and environmental enrichment enhances cortical excitability and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury
Does single session transcranial magnetic stimulation alter fractional anisotropy in obsessive-compulsive disorder? A preliminary observation.
Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation in awake rats: Enhanced glucose uptake in deep cortical layers
Immediate and cumulative effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognition and neuronal excitability in mice.
Cajal Bodies & Gems
Cajal bodies or coiled bodies are dense foci of coilin protein. Gemini of Cajal bodies, or gems, are microscopically similar to Cajal bodies. It is believed that Cajal bodies play important roles in RNA processing while gems assist the Cajal bodies. Find the latest research on Cajal bodies and gems here.