The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are thought to result from aberrant immune responses to myelin antigens. Recent evidence to implicate the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of these disorders is reviewed. In GBS, elevated serum concentrations of TNF-alpha are detectable in 20 to 50% of patients. TNF-alpha released from autoreactive T cells, macrophages, or microglia may contribute to inflammatory demyelinative processes by upregulating the expression of recognition molecules on antigen-presenting cells; by cytotoxic damage to endothelium; by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory mediators; by directly injuring the myelin sheath; or by interfering with impulse propagation. Its pathogenic potential in GBS is underscored by findings in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Soluble ICAM-1, originating from T cells, macrophages, endothelium, or glial cells, circulates at increased concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS. ICAM-1 may be crucially involved in the migration of autoreactive T lymphocytes from blood to brain. Whether ICAM-1 can serve as a marker of acute inflammatory events ...Continue Reading
Adhesion molecules on murine brain microvascular endothelial cells: expression and regulation of ICAM-1 and Lgp 55
Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells by cytokines and lipopolysaccharide
Inflammatory leukocytes and cytokines in the peptide-induced disease of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL and B10.PL mice
Lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by myelin basic protein-specific T cell clones correlates with encephalitogenicity
Association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis
Expression and induction of intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on cultured murine oligodendrocytes and astrocytes
Endothelial cell expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the central nervous system of guinea pigs during acute and chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
Serum and CSF levels of IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: expected lack of clinical utility.
An antibody to lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor prevents transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
The induction of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression on human fetal astrocytes by interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, lymphotoxin, and interleukin-1: relevance to intracerebral antigen presentation.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and neurological diseases. Failure in detecting TNF alpha in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia complex, and brain tumours.
Increased production of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor precedes clinical manifestation in multiple sclerosis: do cytokines trigger off exacerbations?
Inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by an antibody to the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1
Suppression of experimental allergic neuritis by an antibody to the intracellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1
Increased levels of circulating ICAM-1 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis. Correlation with TNF-alpha and blood-brain barrier damage
Increased levels of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in multiple sclerosis and human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy
Serum and CSF levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in inflammatory neurologic diseases
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in immune-mediated demyelination and Wallerian degeneration of the rat peripheral nervous system
The spectrum of immune responses to Campylobacter jejuni and glycoconjugates in Guillain-Barré syndrome and in other neuroimmunological disorders
Differential mechanisms of neutrophil and monocyte adhesion on neuroblastoma cells: CD18 and VLA-4 integrins mediate adhesion to SK-N-SH, but not to SK-N-MC cell line
Inflammatory infiltrates in sural nerve biopsies in Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy
Guillain-Barré syndrome in immunocompromised patients: a report of three patients and review of the literature
Basic aspects of neuroimmunology as they relate to immunotherapeutic targets: present and future prospects
Circulating adhesion molecules and tumor necrosis factor receptor in multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging
Soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) in cerebrospinal fluid and serum correlate with MRI activity in multiple sclerosis
Is there a scientific rationale for therapeutic plasma exchange or intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of acute Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and prediction of outcome in multiple sclerosis
Immunosuppressive effect of monoclonal antibodies to ICAM-1 and LFA-1 on peripheral nerve allograft in mice
Investigation of effects of two-different treatment modalities on nerve conduction in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
Pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, induces immune deviation in patients with multiple sclerosis
Radiation-induced changes in the profile of spinal cord serotonin, prostaglandin synthesis, and vascular permeability
Induction of adhesion molecules on human schwann cells by proinflammatory cytokines, an immunofluorescence study
Immunohistochemical localization of cytokines, C5b-9 and ICAM-1 in peripheral nerve of Guillain-Barré syndrome
Chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression by neural cells exposed to IL-1, TNF alpha and interferon gamma
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and chemokine receptor CCR2 productions in Guillain-Barré syndrome and experimental autoimmune neuritis
Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in mixed glia, microglia-enriched or astrocyte-enriched cultures
Immunologically induced electrophysiological dysfunction: implications for inflammatory diseases of the CNS and PNS
Induction of apoptosis by cerebrospinal fluid from patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis in cultured neurons
Augmented expression of daintain/allograft inflammatory factor-1 is associated with clinical disease: dynamics of daintain/allograft inflammatory factor-1 expression in spleen, peripheral nerves and sera during experimental autoimmune neuritis
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP): A Review of Clinical Syndromes and Treatment Approaches in Clinical Practice
Abrogation of mercuric chloride-induced nephritis in the Brown Norway rat by treatment with antibodies against TNFalpha.
Cytokine mRNA expression in CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosis: detection by RT-PCR without in vitro stimulation
Macrophage phagocytosis of myelin in vitro determined by flow cytometry: phagocytosis is mediated by CR3 and induces production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide
Modulation of monocytes matrix metalloproteinase-2, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 by interferon-gamma and -beta: implications to multiple sclerosis
A review of the use of biological agents for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha messenger RNA expression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is associated with disease activity
Nerve compression activates selective nociceptive pathways and upregulates peripheral sodium channel expression in Schwann cells
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC2+) perivascular macrophages in the axotomized facial motor nucleus are regulated by receptors for interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.
CSF & Lymphatic System
This feed focuses on Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) and the lymphatic system. Discover the latest papers using imaging techniques to track CSF outflow into the lymphatic system in animal models.