Sep 5, 2019

Immune Microenvironment of Brain Metastases-Are Microglia and Other Brain Macrophages Little Helpers?

Frontiers in Immunology
Hua YouBozena Kaminska

Abstract

Brain metastases are common intracranial neoplasms and their frequency increases with prolonged survival of cancer patients. New pharmaceuticals targeting oncogenic kinases and immune checkpoint inhibitors augment both overall and progression-free survival in patients with brain metastases, but are not fully successful in reducing metastatic burden and still a majority of oncologic patients die due to dissemination of the disease. Despite therapy advancements, median survival of patients with brain metastases is several months, although it may vary in different types or subtypes of cancer. Contribution of the innate immune system to cancer progression is well established. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), instead of launching antitumor responses, promote extracellular matrix degradation, secrete immunosuppressive cytokines, promote neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. While their roles as pro-tumorigenic cells facilitating tissue remodeling, invasion and metastasis is well documented, much less is known about the immune microenvironment of brain metastases and roles of specific immune cells in those processes. The central nervous system (CNS) is armed in resident myeloid cells: microglia and perivascular macrophages which colon...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Immune Effector Cell
Parenchyma
Neoplastic Cell
Brain
Extracellular Matrix
Cancer Progression
Trafficking
Myeloid Cells
Tams1 antigen

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