Immune Parameters and COVID-19 Infection - Associations With Clinical Severity and Disease Prognosis

Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Milos JesenakPeter Banovcin

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel 2019 coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) represents one of the most studied infectious diseases of today. The number of scientific reports and publications increases exponentially day by day. While the majority of infected subjects are asymptomatic or show mild symptoms, there is an important proportion of patients who requires hospitalization and, sometimes, intensive care. Immune response to novel coronavirus is complex, involves both innate and adaptive immunity, and is biphasic. Significant differences were observed when comparing severe and non-severe patients. Analysis of the reported results from clinical trials clearly show an involvement of specific cellular immunity (predominantly leucopenia, decreased counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes, changes of T cell compartment) and the so-called cytokine storm, which is associated with worsening of symptoms and the promotion of lung damage. An interesting finding regarding eosinopenia that can have both diagnostic and prognostic value is reported by some authors. Examination of selected immune parameters could help to identify severe patients with the risk of unfavorable course of the disease, predict the prognosis and recognize...Continue Reading

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