Immunogenicity of clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in nonhuman primates and humans.

Science Advances
P J KlasseJohn P Moore


Multiple preventive vaccines are being developed to counter the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The leading candidates have now been evaluated in nonhuman primates (NHPs) and human phase 1 and/or phase 2 clinical trials. Several vaccines have already advanced into phase 3 efficacy trials, while others will do so before the end of 2020. Here, we summarize what is known of the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in NHPs and humans. To the extent possible, we compare how the vaccines have performed, taking into account the use of different assays to assess immunogenicity and inconsistencies in how the resulting data are presented. We also review the outcome of challenge experiments with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in immunized macaques, while noting variations in the protocols used, including but not limited to the virus challenge doses. Press releases on the outcomes of vaccine efficacy trials are also summarized.


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