Immunological Tolerance, Pregnancy, and Preeclampsia: The Roles of Semen Microbes and the Father

Frontiers in Medicine
Louise C Kenny, Douglas B Kell

Abstract

Although it is widely considered, in many cases, to involve two separable stages (poor placentation followed by oxidative stress/inflammation), the precise originating causes of preeclampsia (PE) remain elusive. We have previously brought together some of the considerable evidence that a (dormant) microbial component is commonly a significant part of its etiology. However, apart from recognizing, consistent with this view, that the many inflammatory markers of PE are also increased in infection, we had little to say about immunity, whether innate or adaptive. In addition, we focused on the gut, oral and female urinary tract microbiomes as the main sources of the infection. We here marshall further evidence for an infectious component in PE, focusing on the immunological tolerance characteristic of pregnancy, and the well-established fact that increased exposure to the father's semen assists this immunological tolerance. As well as these benefits, however, semen is not sterile, microbial tolerance mechanisms may exist, and we also review the evidence that semen may be responsible for inoculating the developing conceptus (and maybe the placenta) with microbes, not all of which are benign. It is suggested that when they are not, t...Continue Reading

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May 23, 2012·Expert Review of Clinical Immunology·Polly Matzinger
May 24, 2012·Current Opinion in Rheumatology·Paola Cruz-TapiasYehuda Shoenfeld
May 25, 2012·Gynecological Endocrinology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology·Avi Shina, Howard J A Carp
Jun 8, 2012·Clinical and Experimental Immunology·A HalmosA Molvarec
Jun 8, 2012·Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E·Dominic StoopPaul Devroey
Jun 16, 2012·Journal of Insect Physiology·Sarah M ShortBrian P Lazzaro
Jun 16, 2012·Frontiers in Immunology·Nan LiDaishu Han
Jul 12, 2012·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Björn PasternakAnders Hviid
Jul 17, 2012·Advances in Applied Microbiology·Kimberly K Jefferson
Jul 21, 2012·Reproductive Sciences·Chang-Ching YehS Joseph Huang
Aug 1, 2012·Obstetrics and Gynecology·Shiri ShinarEli Rimon
Jul 28, 2012·Placenta·Marco SciosciaBerthold Huppertz
Aug 1, 2012·The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research·Ashok KumarShashi Sharma
Aug 8, 2012·Critical Reviews in Microbiology·Sushil KumarHimanshu Kumar
Sep 7, 2012·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Denise J JamiesonSonja A Rasmussen
Sep 7, 2012·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Robert A BednarczykSaad B Omer
Sep 7, 2012·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Elyse Olshen KharbandaJames D Nordin
Aug 29, 2012·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Kerina J DennyLeonie K Callaway
Sep 7, 2012·Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology·Michael W Gray
Sep 21, 2012·The New England Journal of Medicine·Zev Williams
Sep 26, 2012·Expert Review of Vaccines·Pedro L MoroKaren Broder
Sep 26, 2012·Hypertension·Aletta BuurmaHans J Baelde
Oct 2, 2012·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·David A Clark, Gérard Chaouat
Oct 16, 2012·Molecular Biology Reports·Ewa M KościuczukEmilia Bagnicka
Oct 20, 2012·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Min-Duk SeoBong-Jin Lee
Nov 3, 2012·Journal of Pathogens·Sonia Gupta, Vijay Prabha
Nov 8, 2012·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·A KestlerováJ Madar
Dec 4, 2012·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Luke SimonSheena E M Lewis
Dec 12, 2012·Trends in Biotechnology·Kathryn F SykesPhillip Stafford
Jan 3, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Michael D Lockshin
Jan 22, 2013·Genome Biology and Evolution·Gertraud BurgerB Franz Lang
Feb 5, 2013·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Jennifer L RichardsSaad B Omer
Feb 15, 2013·Frontiers in Immunology·Gary F Clark, Danny J Schust
Feb 19, 2013·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Kerina J DennyTrent M Woodruff
Feb 23, 2013·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Imrich Barák, Katarína Muchová
Mar 2, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Elizabeth A Bonney
Mar 6, 2013·Hypertension·A C StaffC W Redman
Mar 14, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Sarah A RobertsonLachlan M Moldenhauer
Mar 1, 2011·Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics·Eva ViscaSinuhe Hahn
Mar 23, 2013·World Journal of Urology·Florian M E WagenlehnerWolfgang Weidner
Apr 4, 2013·G3 : Genes - Genomes - Genetics·Sarah M Short, Brian P Lazzaro
Apr 9, 2013·Expert Review of Vaccines·Philip Sutton, Yok Teng Chionh
Apr 18, 2013·American Journal of Perinatology·Nathan S FoxAndrei Rebarber
May 2, 2013·Journal of Leukocyte Biology·Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje
May 25, 2013·Clinics in Laboratory Medicine·Michael D Lockshin
Jun 12, 2013·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·E AbalosLale Say
Jul 3, 2013·Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety·Lucia Cea-SorianoSonia Hernández-Díaz
Aug 6, 2013·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Laura Conde-FerráezMaría del Refugio González-Losa
Aug 6, 2013·Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety·Linda de JongeMarian K Bakker
Aug 13, 2013·Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology·Elisabeth SappenfieldAthena P Kourtis
Aug 14, 2013·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Saad AlshahraniAshok Agarwal
Aug 21, 2013·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Sheena E M LewisParviz Gharagozloo
Aug 22, 2013·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Marco SciosciaMonica Montagnani
Aug 27, 2013·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Sarka Lisonkova, K S Joseph
Sep 3, 2013·APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica·Alan Ebringer, Taha Rashid
Sep 3, 2013·Fertility and Sterility·Dongsheng HouChen Xu
Sep 7, 2013·Progress in Lipid Research·Susanne E Horvath, Günther Daum
Sep 10, 2013·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Audrey F SaftlasElizabeth W Triche
Sep 21, 2013·Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics·Wang RuixueLiu Ruizhi
Sep 24, 2013·Pregnancy Hypertension·Catherine L HaggertyRoberta B Ness
Sep 28, 2013·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Sandro La VigneraAldo E Calogero
Oct 8, 2013·Antioxidants & Redox Signaling·Giuseppe ParadiesGiuseppe Petrosillo
Oct 8, 2013·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Mollie McDonnoldMaged M Costantine
Oct 15, 2013·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·A C StaffC W Redman
Oct 17, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·M Camille HoffmanVirginia D Winn
Oct 22, 2013·Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences = Hua Zhong Ke Ji Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ying De Wen Ban = Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen Ban·Ying ZhuGe-Qing Xia
Oct 23, 2013·Chemistry and Physics of Lipids·Edgard M MejiaGrant M Hatch
Nov 5, 2013·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Giuseppe ParadiesGiuseppe Petrosillo
Nov 5, 2013·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Yuriy ChabanNatalya V Dudkina
Nov 10, 2013·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Cande V AnanthRonald J Wapner
Nov 14, 2013·Chemistry and Physics of Lipids·Eugenia Mileykovskaya, William Dowhan
Nov 21, 2013·Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases·Florian M E WagenlehnerKurt G Naber
Nov 23, 2013·Nucleic Acids Research·Faiza Hanif WaghuSusan Idicula-Thomas
Nov 28, 2013·Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling·Jun ZhaoJie Zheng
Dec 7, 2013·Hypertension in Pregnancy : Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy·Yuval BdolahDrorith Hochner-Celnikier
Dec 20, 2013·Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology·Yu LiuQianjin Lu
Jan 7, 2014·Seminars in Reproductive Medicine·Ido SirotaJames H Segars
Jan 9, 2014·World Journal of Urology·Jörg KrebsJürgen Pannek
Jan 29, 2014·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·John J BromfieldSarah A Robertson
Jan 30, 2014·Reproduction : the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility·Elizabeth A Bonney, Stephen A Brown
Jan 31, 2014·Current Atherosclerosis Reports·Amanda R Vest, Leslie S Cho
Feb 18, 2014·British Journal of Pharmacology·Stephen P H AlexanderCGTP Collaborators
Feb 20, 2014·Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics·Riza MadazliGokhan Demirayak
Feb 20, 2014·Metallomics : Integrated Biometal Science·Douglas B Kell, Etheresia Pretorius
Feb 26, 2014·Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics·Stephanie BellocArmand Zini
Feb 28, 2014·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Simona CardaropoliTullia Todros
Mar 4, 2014·The Journal of Pediatrics·James D NordinVaccine Safety Datalink
Mar 13, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Fang XieJoseph Nadeau
Mar 20, 2014·BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·E AbalosWHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Research Network
Mar 25, 2014·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Yacov LevronYoav Yinon
Mar 29, 2014·Asian Journal of Andrology·Damayanthi DurairajanayagamPallavi Prashast
Apr 1, 2014·Journal of Ophthalmology·Nathalie P Y Chiam, Lyndell L P Lim
Apr 2, 2014·Microbial Pathogenesis·Kiranjeet Kaur, Vijay Prabha
Apr 5, 2014·Medical Hypotheses·Donna L Schminkey, Maureen Groer
Apr 9, 2014·Nature Reviews. Urology·Andrei P DrabovichEleftherios P Diamandis
Apr 12, 2014·Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases·Martin AshbyKai Hilpert
Apr 17, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Mette DahlThomas Vauvert F Hviid
Apr 20, 2014·Vaccine·Allison L NalewayVaccine Safety Datalink and Pregnancy and Influenza Project
Apr 24, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Kaori KogaYutaka Osuga
Apr 29, 2014·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Francesca ValentLoris Zanier
Apr 29, 2014·Progress in Lipid Research·Mindong RenMichael Schlame
May 13, 2014·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Ashok AgarwalMonica Vazquez-Levin
May 16, 2014·Pharmaceuticals·Guangshun Wang
May 17, 2014·Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics·John J Bromfield
May 20, 2014·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Tony T JiangSing Sing Way
May 23, 2014·Science Translational Medicine·Kjersti AagaardJames Versalovic
May 27, 2014·Frontiers in Immunology·Line Lynge NilssonThomas Vauvert F Hviid
Jun 3, 2014·European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology·C Alvarado-EsquivelL O Berumen-Segovia
Jun 5, 2014·The New England Journal of Medicine·Athena P KourtisDenise J Jamieson
Jun 6, 2014·Reproductive Sciences·Renju S RajMark Phillippe
Jun 7, 2014·Frontiers in Immunology·Alejandra Perez-SepulvedaSebastian E Illanes
Jul 6, 2014·Journal of Immunology Research·Alicia Martínez-VareaAntonio Pellicer
Jul 6, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Karen RacicotGil Mor
Jul 6, 2014·Immunology Letters·Claudia La RoccaGiuseppe Matarese
Jul 9, 2014·Nature Reviews. Nephrology·Tinnakorn ChaiworapongsaRoberto Romero
Jul 13, 2014·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Katherine DoneganPhil Bryan
Jul 18, 2014·Science Translational Medicine·I A BuhimschiCatalin Sorin Buhimschi
Jul 22, 2014·BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·Deshayne B FellD Buckeridge
Jul 22, 2014·European Journal of Immunology·Francesco ColucciJohn Trowsdale
Jul 22, 2014·Fertility and Sterility·Monika FraczekMaciej Kurpisz
Aug 29, 2014·BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·A TandbergR Skjaerven
Aug 30, 2014·Helicobacter·Mario M D'Elios, Steven J Czinn
Sep 6, 2014·Frontiers in Immunology·Nándor Gábor ThanHamutal Meiri
Sep 10, 2014·Obstetrics and Gynecology·Sarka LisonkovaK S Joseph
Sep 23, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Bruna de Andrade RamosSteven S Witkin
Sep 25, 2014·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Gregor ReidJuliett Ansell
Oct 6, 2014·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Mireia González-ComadranMiguel Ángel Checa
Oct 22, 2014·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Luchin F WongJames R Scott
Oct 28, 2014·Frontiers in Physiology·Lissette C Sánchez-ArangurenMarcos Lopez
Oct 28, 2014·Frontiers in Immunology·Chiara TersigniNicoletta Di Simone
Nov 20, 2014·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Kristin N BrattonSaad B Omer
Dec 3, 2014·Microbes and Infection·Hiroyasu Konno, Glen N Barber
Dec 3, 2014·Fertility and Sterility·Edmund KoAshok Agarwal
Dec 11, 2014·The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research·Ranmalee AmarasekaraVajira H W Dissanayake
Dec 17, 2014·Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey·Stefano R GiannubiloAndrea Ciavattini
Dec 17, 2014·Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education·Megan ScheminskePregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Jan 15, 2015·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Michelle SilasiGil Mor
Jan 15, 2015·Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR·Kavitha P, Suttur S Malini
Jan 22, 2015·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Ivan VelickovicMing Zhang
Jan 23, 2015·Scientific Reports·Zhang Wang, Martin Wu
Jan 31, 2015·Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension·Monica SircarS Ananth Karumanchi
Feb 1, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Matthew Josiah Allen-DanielsKimberly K Jefferson
Feb 5, 2015·Medical Gas Research·Kumiko NakataIkuroh Ohsawa
Feb 11, 2015·Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy·Mohan Pammi, Leonard E Weisman
Feb 16, 2015·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Alies CoendersMaria G van Pampus
Feb 17, 2015·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·S La VigneraAldo E Calogero
Mar 15, 2015·Integrated Blood Pressure Control·Fred A EnglishFergus McCarthy
Mar 17, 2015·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Rachel M Tribe
Mar 22, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·James D R HartleyAshley Moffett
Mar 23, 2015·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Simona CardaropoliTullia Todros
Mar 31, 2015·Cell·Oliver J Rando, Rebecca A Simmons
Apr 15, 2015·Research in Microbiology·Reet MändarJaak Truu
Apr 23, 2015·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Rebecca LisLisa E Manhart
May 1, 2015·Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR·Søren R Paludan
May 6, 2015·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Marnie PotgieterEtheresia Pretorius
May 21, 2015·PloS One·Marian KacerovskyJana Nekvindova
May 31, 2015·Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA·Stephan Michael JonasI A Buhimschi
Jun 16, 2015·Frontiers in Immunology·Nicolas S MerleLubka T Roumenina
Jun 18, 2015·Frontiers in Immunology·Nicolas S MerleLubka T Roumenina
Jun 25, 2015·Pregnancy Hypertension·Cwg Redman
Jan 1, 2013·Pregnancy Hypertension·Catherine L HaggertyRoberta B Ness
Jul 11, 2015·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Alaa Mosbah, Yasmin Nabiel
Jul 11, 2015·Veterinary Research·Elaine M S DornelesAndrey P Lage
Jul 16, 2015·Reproduction in Domestic Animals = Zuchthygiene·M SchulzeM Jung
Jul 17, 2015·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·John E Schjenken, Sarah A Robertson
Jul 17, 2015·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·Deborah J Anderson, Joseph A Politch
Jul 17, 2015·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
Aug 25, 2015·Autoimmunity Reviews·Maximiliano Javier Jiménez-DalmaroniIannis E Adamopoulos
Sep 1, 2015·Advances in Neonatal Care : Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses·Anne L DunlopElizabeth J Corwin
Sep 5, 2015·Trends in Microbiology·Hellen Gelband, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Sep 19, 2015·Seminars in Immunopathology·Teresa ZelanteLuigina Romani
Sep 20, 2015·Human Reproduction Update·Sevi GiakoumelouAndrew W Horne
Oct 3, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Chong Jai KimJung-Sun Kim
Oct 4, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Gabriele SacconePasquale Martinelli
Oct 10, 2015·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Andrew H Liu
Oct 10, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Sarah Rae EasterThomas F McElrath
Oct 16, 2015·The New England Journal of Medicine·Gibrilla F DeenFoday Sahr
Oct 31, 2015·Science·Alexandria M Palaferri SchieberJanelle S Ayres
Nov 12, 2015·Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases·Bradley C Gill, Daniel A Shoskes
Nov 18, 2015·Cell and Tissue Research·Jianhong ZhangStephen J Lye
Nov 18, 2015·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Jonas F LudvigssonOlof Stephansson
Nov 18, 2015·Parasitology Research·Malihe Nourollahpour ShiadehAli Rostami
Nov 25, 2015·Pharmacotherapy·P Brandon BookstaverMilena McLaughlin
Nov 26, 2015·Nucleic Acids Research·Guangshun WangZhe Wang
Dec 2, 2015·Turkish Journal of Urology·Daniel Filipe CruzMargarida Fardilha
Dec 3, 2015·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Pourya MasoudianDina El Demellawy
Dec 5, 2015·Frontiers in Immunology·Ronald F Lamont
Dec 15, 2015·Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine·Kelsey R BoundsBrett M Mitchell
Dec 27, 2015·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·