PMID: 3611Jan 1, 1976

Immunology of DNA. I. The influence of reaction conditions on the Farr assay as used for the detection of anti-ds DNA

Journal of Immunological Methods
L A AardenT E Feltkamp


The sensitivity and the specificity of the Farr assay for the detection of antibodies to double stranded (ds) DNA depends very much on the reaction conditions. The interaction between ds DNA and anti-ds DNA is inhibited when ionic strength and pH are increased. ds DNA is bound by normal sera at ionic strength lower than 0.11 M NaCl and at physiological ionic strength when the pH is lower than 7.2. Substantial binding of DNA by normal serum takes place in barbitone, borate or Tris-HCl buffers at concentrations of 30 mM or higher, even at a pH higher than 7.2. Such binding is due to Clq and is only partially prevented by heating the serum for 30 min at 56 degrees C, but 10 mM phosphate in the incubation mixture completely prevents it. Standardization of ionic strength, pH, phosphate concentration, incubation volume and DNA-serum ratio enhances the diagnostic usefulness of the Farr assay.


Jan 9, 1971·Lancet·M W Greaves, A Skillen
Oct 1, 1967·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·D KofflerH G Kunkel
Jul 1, 1973·Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases·D N GlassJ T Scott
May 1, 1971·Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases·G R HughesC L Christian
Sep 25, 1969·The New England Journal of Medicine·T PincusN Talal
Mar 1, 1962·Journal of Molecular Biology·N SUEOKA, T Y CHENG
Aug 1, 1964·Journal of Molecular Biology·R H PRITCHARD, K G LARK
Feb 1, 1965·Journal of Molecular Biology·F W STUDIER


Nov 1, 1978·Arthritis and Rheumatism·R L RubinR I Carr
Nov 1, 1990·Journal of Clinical Immunology·A RuffattiS Todesco
Nov 1, 1992·Molecular Biology Reports·R Smeenk, M Hylkema
Mar 1, 1990·Clinical Rheumatology·R J SmeenkT Swaak
Apr 13, 2013·Immunologic Research·D S Pisetsky
Jan 1, 1977·Journal of Immunological Methods·L A AardenE R de Groot
May 10, 1979·Journal of Immunological Methods·E V Barnett
Jan 1, 1981·Journal of Immunological Methods·P T Strickland, J M Boyle
Dec 30, 1982·Journal of Immunological Methods·R J SmeenkL A Aarden
Jun 24, 1992·Journal of Immunological Methods·A J Pesce, J G Michael
Feb 1, 1990·Clinical and Experimental Immunology·S AotsukaR Yokohari
Jan 1, 1978·Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine·J Webb
Jul 1, 1995·European Journal of Neurology : the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies·G P AnzolaA Bonetti
Feb 1, 1981·Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases·A J SwaakT E Feltkamp
Oct 1, 1990·Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases·R H DerksenR J Smeenk
May 1, 1982·Journal of Clinical Pathology·R P StokesR A Thompson
Apr 22, 1988·Journal of Immunological Methods·R J SmeenkT Swaak
Jun 7, 2003·Scandinavian Journal of Immunology·L BjörkmanD S Pisetsky
Jan 1, 1982·International Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology·H F Graafland, A L Wagner
Jul 24, 2002·Clinics in Laboratory Medicine·David F Keren
Jan 1, 1987·Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology·R H DerksenL Kater
Nov 1, 1985·Scandinavian Journal of Immunology·P FaaberJ H Berden
Aug 11, 2006·Lupus·A M Rouquette, C Desgruelles
Dec 1, 1979·Arthritis and Rheumatism·C R Steinman
Sep 1, 1991·Clinical and Experimental Immunology·T H WinklerJ R Kalden
Jan 1, 1980·Immunological Communications·E R de GrootC J van Oss
Mar 1, 1979·Arthritis and Rheumatism·A J SwaakT E Feltkamp

Related Concepts

Binding Sites, Antibody
DNA, Double-Stranded
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
Sodium Chloride, (24)NaCl

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.