Immunology of pregnancy: cellular mechanisms allowing fetal survival within the maternal uterus

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Ana C ZenclussenHans-Dieter Volk


Pregnancy success remains a fascinating phenomenon to immunologists as it defies the immunological rules of rejection. Although it was previously thought that the maternal immune system does not see the fetus, it is now well documented that fetal cells reach the maternal body and encounter host immune cells. Natural tolerance mechanisms following this interaction remain to be fully elucidated. This article reviews the current literature on mechanisms of adaptive immunity, with emphasis on regulatory T cells and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). We propose a scenario in which regulatory T cells create a tolerant microenvironment at the fetal-maternal interface characterised by the presence of tolerance-associated molecules such as HO-1, which has been shown to be of vital importance for fetal survival.


Sep 1, 1992·Baillière's Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology·W D Billington
Mar 1, 1992·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·J S Hunt, H T Orr
Jul 1, 1991·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·I Malan BorelR A Margni
May 1, 1991·Trends in Pharmacological Sciences·G S MarksB E McLaughlin
Nov 1, 1991·Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis : a Journal of Vascular Biology·G BallaG M Vercellotti
Jan 1, 1988·The International Journal of Biochemistry·N G AbrahamS Shibahara
Oct 1, 1987·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology : AJRIM·T G Wegmann
Jan 1, 1985·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·B J TrudingerC M Cook
Jul 11, 1981·Lancet·C Taylor, W P Faulk
Jan 1, 1983·Immunological Reviews·G ChaouatT G Wegmann
Jan 1, 1982·Social Work in Health Care·A Lurie
Oct 27, 1995·Science·A TafuriB Arnold
Jan 15, 1993·Science·A VermaS H Snyder
Jul 1, 1994·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·M M FaasW W Bakker
Jan 1, 1994·Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology·G M VercellottiH S Jacob
Jan 1, 1993·Advances in Immunology·S AkiraT Kishimoto
Jul 1, 1996·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·R PijnenborgF A Van Assche
Apr 1, 1996·International Journal of Hematology·S Sassa, T Nagai
Jan 1, 1997·Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology·M D Maines
Jul 15, 1997·European Journal of Biochemistry·W K McCoubreyM D Maines
Nov 14, 1997·Immunology Today·R Raghupathy
Oct 6, 1997·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·K D Poss, S Tonegawa
Feb 20, 1998·Journal of Leukocyte Biology·Y Y WangG W Wood
Aug 13, 1998·Immunological Reviews·R A Margni, I Malan Borel
Sep 12, 1998·Nature Medicine·M P SoaresF H Bach
May 6, 1999·European Journal of Immunology·A KruseE C Butcher
Oct 16, 1999·The American Journal of the Medical Sciences·P Ponka
Dec 14, 1999·Molecular Human Reproduction·A MeisserP Bischof
Jan 8, 2000·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·F LyallS C Robson
Feb 25, 2000·Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research·X Li, J David Clark
Apr 1, 2000·Current Opinion in Chemical Biology·P R Montellano
Aug 5, 2000·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·S Saito

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jan 9, 2010·Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology·Raffaella GozzelinoMiguel P Soares
Oct 31, 2009·The International Journal of Developmental Biology·Amanda de MestreDouglas F Antczak
Nov 3, 2010·Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine·Catalin S BuhimschiCharles J Lockwood
Nov 19, 2015·Expert Review of Clinical Immunology·Mahsa RahimzadehNadereh Naderi
Aug 28, 2012·Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction·S HanssensD Vinatier
Sep 16, 2015·The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research·Samira HosseiniAmir-Hassan Zarnani
Sep 8, 2010·Transplant International : Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation·Robert Öllinger, Johann Pratschke
Feb 26, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Trevor D Burt
Feb 15, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Ada G Blidner, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Jul 14, 2010·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Leela E Noronha, Douglas F Antczak
Feb 2, 2010·Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety·Fabiano SantosAnick Bérard
Mar 11, 2008·Cellular Immunology·Cherie L Butts, Esther M Sternberg
Jul 27, 2014·Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction·V MesdagD Vinatier
Nov 21, 2008·Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases·Rodney R Dietert
Jul 30, 2014·Frontiers in Pharmacology·Carlos Penha-GonçalvesLuciana V de Moraes
Jul 6, 2019·Frontiers in Immunology·Andrea BaloghNandor Gabor Than
Jun 24, 2020·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Tom E C KiefferJelmer R Prins
Jun 4, 2011·Reproduction, Fertility, and Development·A E GroebnerS E Ulbrich

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Epigenetics Insights from Twin Studies

Find the latest research on epigenetics and twin studies here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.