Apr 17, 2019

Immunoneuropsychiatry - novel perspectives on brain disorders

Nature Reviews. Neurology
Katrin PapeFrauke Zipp

Abstract

Immune processes have a vital role in CNS homeostasis, resilience and brain reserve. Our cognitive and social abilities rely on a highly sensitive and fine-tuned equilibrium of immune responses that involve both innate and adaptive immunity. Autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, infection and psychosocial stress can tip the scales towards disruption of higher-order networks. However, not only classical neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune encephalitis, are caused by immune dysregulation that affects CNS function. Recent insight indicates that similar processes are involved in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder and depression. Pathways that are common to these disorders include microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, molecular mimicry, anti-neuronal autoantibodies, self-reactive T cells and disturbance of the blood-brain barrier. These discoveries challenge our traditional classification of neurological and psychiatric diseases. New clinical paths are required to identify subgroups of neuropsychiatric disorders that are phenotypically distinct but pathogenically related and to pave the way for mechanism-based immune treatments. Combined...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Immune Response
Autoantibodies
Brain Diseases
T-Lymphocyte
Classification
Schizophrenia
Brain
Inflammatory Disorder
Chronic Inflammation
Bipolar Disorder

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