At the end of 2002, the first cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were reported, and in the following year, SARS resulted in considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. SARS is caused by a novel species of coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and is the most severe coronavirus-mediated human disease that has been described so far. On the basis of similarities with other coronavirus infections, SARS might, in part, be immune mediated. As discussed in this Review, studies of animals that are infected with other coronaviruses indicate that excessive and sometimes dysregulated responses by macrophages and other pro-inflammatory cells might be particularly important in the pathogenesis of disease that is caused by infection with these viruses. It is hoped that lessons from such studies will help us to understand more about the pathogenesis of SARS in humans and to prevent or control outbreaks of SARS in the future.
Associated Clinical Trials
Early death after feline infectious peritonitis virus challenge due to recombinant vaccinia virus immunization
Intrinsic resistance of feline peritoneal macrophages to coronavirus infection correlates with in vivo virulence
Host genetic control of mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (JHM strain) replication. I. Restriction of virus amplification and spread in macrophages from resistant mice
The biological relationship of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strains and interferon: in vitro induction and sensitivities
Adoptive transfer of EAE-like lesions from rats with coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis
Antibody-mediated enhancement of disease in feline infectious peritonitis: comparisons with dengue hemorrhagic fever
Association of mouse fibrinogen-like protein with murine hepatitis virus-induced prothrombinase activity
Pattern of disease after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection correlates with macrophage activation and not viral replication
B lymphocyte and macrophage expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecules that serve as receptors for murine coronavirus
Dissociation of demyelination and viral clearance in congenitally immunodeficient mice infected with murine coronavirus JHM
Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I
Mouse hepatitis virus is cleared from the central nervous systems of mice lacking perforin-mediated cytolysis
Fulminant hepatic failure in murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection: tissue-specific expression of a novel fgl2 prothrombinase
Murine hepatitis virus strain 3 induces the macrophage prothrombinase fgl-2 through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.
Cellular composition, coronavirus antigen expression and production of specific antibodies in lesions in feline infectious peritonitis
Depletion of blood-borne macrophages does not reduce demyelination in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus
Macrophage infiltration, but not apoptosis, is correlated with immune-mediated demyelination following murine infection with a neurotropic coronavirus
Histopathological alterations of lymphatic tissues in cats without feline infectious peritonitis after long-term exposure to FIP virus
The T cell chemoattractant IFN-inducible protein 10 is essential in host defense against viral-induced neurologic disease
Expression of Mig (monokine induced by interferon-gamma) is important in T lymphocyte recruitment and host defense following viral infection of the central nervous system
A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection
Lack of CCR2 results in increased mortality and impaired leukocyte activation and trafficking following infection of the central nervous system with a neurotropic coronavirus
Variability and asymmetry in the human precentral motor system. A cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic brain mapping study
Cutting edge: CD8 T cell-mediated demyelination is IFN-gamma dependent in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus
Murine coronavirus replication-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation promotes interleukin-6 production and virus replication in cultured cells
CD4 T-cell-mediated demyelination is increased in the absence of gamma interferon in mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus
Induction of prothrombinase fgl2 by the nucleocapsid protein of virulent mouse hepatitis virus is dependent on host hepatic nuclear factor-4 alpha
Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study.
Haematological manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: retrospective analysis
The Fgl2/fibroleukin prothrombinase contributes to immunologically mediated thrombosis in experimental and human viral hepatitis
Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China
Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.
Pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system infection with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM.
Establishment of the eukaryotic cell lines for inducible control of SARS-CoV nucleocapsid gene expression
Infectious diseases emerging from Chinese wet-markets: zoonotic origins of severe respiratory viral infections
Protective and pathologic roles of the immune response to mouse hepatitis virus type 1: implications for severe acute respiratory syndrome.
Extremely low exposure of a community to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: false seropositivity due to use of bacterially derived antigens
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2.
Cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in senescent BALB/c mice: CD4+ T cells are important in control of SARS-CoV infection.
Mutational analysis of aminopeptidase N, a receptor for several group 1 coronaviruses, identifies key determinants of viral host range
Chimeric feline coronaviruses that encode type II spike protein on type I genetic background display accelerated viral growth and altered receptor usage.
Cytokine responses in porcine respiratory coronavirus-infected pigs treated with corticosteroids as a model for severe acute respiratory syndrome.
Broad-spectrum in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of the antiviral protein griffithsin against emerging viruses of the family Coronaviridae.
Release of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nuclear import block enhances host transcription in human lung cells
Isolation and characterization of current human coronavirus strains in primary human epithelial cell cultures reveal differences in target cell tropism
Primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection limits replication but not lung inflammation upon homologous rechallenge.
Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing.
Immunization with SARS coronavirus vaccines leads to pulmonary immunopathology on challenge with the SARS virus.
Analysis of the host transcriptome from demyelinating spinal cord of murine coronavirus-infected mice
Coronavirus non-structural protein 1 is a major pathogenicity factor: implications for the rational design of coronavirus vaccines
A systems immunology approach to plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in cytopathic virus infections.
Neutralization interfering antibodies: a "novel" example of humoral immune dysfunction facilitating viral escape?
Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies
Active replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human macrophages: implications for pathogenesis
CpG-ODNs induced changes in cytokine/chemokines genes expression associated with suppression of infectious bronchitis virus replication in chicken lungs
A general strategy to inhibiting viral -1 frameshifting based on upstream attenuation duplex formation
Synergistic antiviral effect of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin and nelfinavir against feline coronavirus.
Trilogy of ACE2: a peptidase in the renin-angiotensin system, a SARS receptor, and a partner for amino acid transporters.
Plant-produced candidate countermeasures against emerging and reemerging infections and bioterror agents
What caused lymphopenia in SARS and how reliable is the lymphokine status in glucocorticoid-treated patients?
Systemic fatal type II coronavirus infection in a dog: pathological findings and immunohistochemistry
Regulation of cell death during infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses
Replication-dependent downregulation of cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein expression by human coronavirus NL63
Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.
Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.
Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD
Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.
Applications of Molecular Barcoding
The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.
Evolution of Pluripotency
Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.
Position Effect Variegation
Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.
STING Receptor Agonists
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.
Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.