Impact of CYP2C9 genotype on pharmacokinetics: are all cyclooxygenase inhibitors the same?

Drug Metabolism and Disposition : the Biological Fate of Chemicals
A David Rodrigues

Abstract

The market withdrawals of rofecoxib (Vioxx) and valdecoxib (Bextra) have focused considerable attention on the side effect profiles of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. As a result, attempts will be made to identify risk factors in the hope that physicians might be able to ensure patient safety. At first glance, CYP2C9 genotype might be considered a risk factor because many COX inhibitors are CYP2C9 substrates in vitro. This observation has led some to hypothesize that a reduction in clearance, in subjects expressing variant forms of the enzyme (e.g., CYP2C9*1/*3 or CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype), will lead to increased exposure and a greater risk of cardiovascular or gastrointestinal side effects. For any drug, however, one has to consider all clearance pathways. Therefore, a number of COX inhibitors were surveyed and it was determined that CYP2C9 plays a relatively minor role in the overall clearance (<or=20% of the dose) of sulindac, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. CYP2C9 genotype would have no clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs. In contrast, CYP2C9 genotype is expected to impact the clearance of ibuprofen, indomethacin, flurbiprofen, celecoxib, valdecoxib, lornoxicam, teno...Continue Reading

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