Impaired beta-cell function, incretin effect, and glucagon suppression in patients with type 1 diabetes who have normal fasting glucose

Diabetes
Carla J GreenbaumDavid A D'Alessio

Abstract

We have recently described a novel phenotype in a group of subjects with type 1 diabetes that is manifested by glucose >11.1 mmol/l 120 min after an oral glucose load, but with normal fasting glucose levels. We now describe the metabolic characteristics of these subjects by comparing parameters of islet hormone secretion and glucose disposal in these subjects to age-matched nondiabetic control subjects. The patients with type 1 diabetes had fasting glucose, insulin, and glucagon values similar to those of control subjects. Additionally, the insulin secretory response to intravenous arginine at euglycemia was similar in the control and diabetic groups (264 +/- 33.5 and 193 +/- 61.3 pmol/l; P = 0.3). However, marked differences in beta-cell function were found in response to hyperglycemia. Specifically, the first-phase insulin response was lower in diabetic subjects (329.1 +/- 39.6 vs. 91.3 +/- 34.1 pmol/l; P < 0.001), as was the slope of glucose potentiation of the insulin response to arginine (102 +/- 18.7 vs. 30.2 +/- 6.1 pmol/l per mmol/l; P = 0.005) and the maximum insulin response to arginine (2,524 +/- 413 vs. 629 +/- 159 pmol/l; P = 0.001). Although plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory pep...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Islet cell surface antibodies
MKC 253
Arginine hydrochloride
Autoantibodies
Blood Glucose
Diabetes, Autoimmune
Glucagon-Like Peptides
Enteric Hormones
Glucagon
Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

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