In vitro and in vivo: the story of nonoxynol 9
There is an urgent need to expand the range of interventions to prevent HIV transmission and acquisition, especially those that can be controlled by women. Microbicides, defined as antimicrobial products that can be applied topically for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, may offer one of the most promising preventive interventions, because they could be inexpensive, readily available, and widely acceptable. The first microbial product to be clinically evaluated contained Nonoxynol-9 (nonylpenoxypolyethoxyethanol [N-9]), a nonionic surfactant, as the active agent. This article presents a review of the in vitro, ex vivo, and animal model data on the safety of N-9 and a critical analysis of their predictive power based on the results of multiple safety and efficacy trials.
In vitro activity of nonoxynol 9 on HeLa 229 cells and primary monkey cervical epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis
The mucosa of the rabbit vagina: a proposed experimental model for correlated morphofunctional studies in humans
Nonoxynol-9: differential antibacterial activity and enhancement of bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells
The spermicidal compound nonoxynol-9 increases adhesion of Candida species to human epithelial cells in vitro
Bioelectric activity as a quantifiable index of acute spermicide (nonoxynol-9) actions on rat vaginal epithelial function during the oestrous cycle
Studies on development of a vaginal preparation providing both prophylaxis against venereal disease, other genital infections and contraception. 3. In vitro effect of vaginal contraceptive and selected vaginal preparations of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis
The permeability of nonhuman primate vaginal epithelium: a freeze-fracture and tracer-perfusion study
Comparative in vitro study of contraceptive agents with anti-HIV activity: gramicidin, nonoxynol-9, and gossypol
A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases
Effects of multiple applications of benzalkonium chloride and nonoxynol 9 on the vaginal epithelium in the pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina)
WHI-05, a novel bromo-methoxy substituted phenyl phosphate derivative of zidovudine, is a dual-action spermicide with potent anti-HIV activity
Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium dodecyl sulfate and C31G as microbicidal alternatives to nonoxynol 9: comparative sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes
Distribution of a spermicide containing Nonoxynol-9 in the vaginal canal and the upper female reproductive tract
The molecular basis of nonoxynol-9-induced vaginal inflammation and its possible relevance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission
Entry of inflammatory cells into the mouse vagina following application of candidate microbicides: comparison of detergent-based and sulfated polymer-based agents
Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial
Microbicide efficacy and toxicity tests in a mouse model for vaginal transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis
PRO 2000 elicits a decline in genital tract immune mediators without compromising intrinsic antimicrobial activity
Ex vivo comparison of microbicide efficacies for preventing HIV-1 genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal cells
Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm
Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse
Development of polylactide and polyethylene vinyl acetate blends for the manufacture of vaginal rings
Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity
Personal and Clinical Vaginal Lubricants: Impact on Local Vaginal Microenvironment and Implications for Epithelial Cell Host Response and Barrier Function
Asymptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated With Depletion of Mature Superficial Cells Shed From the Vaginal Epithelium
Biocompatibility of solid-dosage forms of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicides with the human cervicovaginal mucosa modeled ex vivo
Safety and distribution of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate (CAP), a candidate anti-HIV microbicide in rhesus macaques
Oral preexposure anti-HIV prophylaxis for high-risk U.S. populations: current considerations in light of new findings
Organotypic 3D cell culture models: using the rotating wall vessel to study host-pathogen interactions
Characterization of UC781-tenofovir combination gel products for HIV-1 infection prevention in an ex vivo ectocervical model
In vivo evaluation of safety and toxicity of a Lactobacillus jensenii producing modified cyanovirin-N in a rhesus macaque vaginal challenge model
Impact of microbicides and sexually transmitted infections on mucosal immunity in the female genital tract
Vaginal and rectal topical microbicide development: safety and efficacy of 1.0% Savvy (C31G) in the pigtailed macaque
Application of optical coherence tomography for monitoring changes in cervicovaginal epithelial morphology in macaques: potential for assessment of microbicide safety
Safety analysis of the diaphragm in combination with lubricant or acidifying microbicide gels: effects on markers of inflammation and innate immunity in cervicovaginal fluid
No increase in cervicovaginal proinflammatory cytokines after Carraguard use in a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial
Development of a comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 screening algorithm for discovery and preclinical testing of topical microbicides
Quantitative assessment of microbicide-induced injury in the ovine vaginal epithelium using confocal microendoscopy
In vitro evaluation of viability, integrity, and inflammation in genital epithelia upon exposure to pharmaceutical excipients and candidate microbicides
CD4-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins are novel potent HIV entry inhibitors with unique characteristics
Dermaseptins and magainins: antimicrobial peptides from frogs' skin-new sources for a promising spermicides microbicides-a mini review
Development and characterization of a three-dimensional organotypic human vaginal epithelial cell model
Development and Characterization of a Vaginal Film Containing Dapivirine, a Non- nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission
In vitro preclinical testing of nonoxynol-9 as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide: a retrospective analysis of results from five laboratories
Decreased cervical epithelial sensitivity to nonoxynol-9 (N-9) after four daily applications in a murine model of topical vaginal microbicide safety
High resolution imaging of epithelial injury in the sheep cervicovaginal tract: a promising model for testing safety of candidate microbicides
The past, present, and future of HIV prevention: integrating behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies for the next generation of HIV prevention
Effects of hormonal contraception on antiretroviral drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
Utility of colposcopy in a phase 2 portion of a microbicide clinical trial of BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000 Gel
Microbial products alter the expression of membrane-associated mucin and antimicrobial peptides in a three-dimensional human endocervical epithelial cell model
An engineered HIV-1 gp41 trimeric coiled coil with increased stability and anti-HIV-1 activity: implication for developing anti-HIV microbicides
New types of diaphragms and cervical caps versus older types of diaphragms and different gels for contraception: a systematic review
Exploiting common targets in human fertilization and HIV infection: development of novel contraceptive microbicides
Contraceptive efficacy of a novel spermicidal microbicide used with a diaphragm: a randomized controlled trial
Silencing sexually transmitted infections: topical siRNA-based interventions for the prevention of HIV and HSV
Recruitment of HIV-1 target cells at topical mucosal sites: a sensitive and early marker for determining the safety of microbicide candidates
Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response
Development of multipurpose technologies products for pregnancy and STI prevention: update on polyphenylene carboxymethylene MPT gel development†
A phase I randomized safety study of a single-size silicone rubber diaphragm used with or without a lactic-acid-containing diaphragm gel
A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation
Biological and technical variables affecting immunoassay recovery of cytokines from human serum and simulated vaginal fluid: a multicenter study
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