PMID: 3090508May 1, 1986Paper

In vivo response times for a heated skin surface CO2 electrode during rest and exercise

Pediatric Pulmonology
B G NickersonF Monaco


The continuous, noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) by heated skin surface electrodes has recently become available for pediatric patients. Skin surface (PsCO2) electrodes can enhance the safety of procedures such as intubation, bronchoscopy, ventilator changes, sleep studies, or measurement of the ventilatory response to CO2 or hypoxia. However, clinical situations that include rapid changes in PaCO2 demand knowledge of the in vivo response time. We compared the response of a heated PsCO2 electrode to end tidal CO2 (PetCO2) during abrupt changes in inspired CO2 from room air to 7% CO2 and back to room air. We obtained 54 curves on nine healthy subjects. There was an initial lag time with less than a 10% change in PsCO2. Then PsCO2 approached PetCO2 exponentially. For subjects at rest changing from breathing room air to 7% CO2, the initial lag time was 40 +/- 2 seconds and the 50% response time of the exponential portion was 46 +/- 3 seconds. Thus, it took 86 seconds for the electrode to record a 60% response to an abrupt increase in inspired CO2. The initial lag and 50% response time were considerably shorter during exercise (30 +/- 2 and 33 +/- 2 seconds) and even shorter when switched from breat...Continue Reading


May 1, 1983·Critical Care Medicine·A ShuklaD Vidyasagar
Sep 1, 1980·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·T N HansenM B McIlroy
Oct 1, 1981·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·J W Severinghaus
Nov 1, 1982·Critical Care Medicine·F MonacoJ C McQuitty


Jan 1, 1990·Pediatric Pulmonology·U PradalG Mastella
Jan 1, 1992·The American Review of Respiratory Disease·J S ClarkD Y Sue
Mar 1, 1988·Chest·B G NickersonK K Tremper
Nov 1, 1990·The Journal of Pediatrics·S FanconiC Mühlemann
Jul 31, 2004·Paediatric Anaesthesia·Anne B ChangI Brent Masters
Nov 20, 2019·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·Willem van WeteringenPeter M Schumacher

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Carbon Dioxide
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