This review provides clinicians with a comprehensive overview of indirect calorimetry including the principles, methodology, technologic advancements, benefits, and challenges. Clinical applications for indirect calorimetry and the potential limitations are specifically addressed for both the inpatient and outpatient setting. Measurement of energy expenditure is the most accurate method to assess energy needs. Indirect calorimetry remains a gold standard in measuring energy expenditure in the clinical settings. The benefits of providing optimal nutrition for recovery from illness and chronic health management are well documented. Indirect calorimetry offers a scientifically-based approach to customize a patient's energy needs and nutrient delivery to maximize the benefits of nutrition therapy. With recent advances in technology, indirect calorimeters are easier to operate, more portable, and affordable. Increased utilization of indirect calorimetry would facilitate individualized patient care and should lead to improved treatment outcomes.
Metabolic response to injury and illness: estimation of energy and protein needs from indirect calorimetry and nitrogen balance
Estimating energy expenditure in traumatic brain injury: comparison of indirect calorimetry with predictive formulas
Spectrum of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism: effect on thyrotropin, prolactin, and thyroid reserve, and metabolic impact on peripheral target tissues
Equations for the estimation of energy expenditures in patients with burns with special reference to ventilatory status
Body composition as a determinant of energy expenditure: a synthetic review and a proposed general prediction equation
Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women
Influence of continuous haemofiltration-related hypothermia on haemodynamic variables and gas exchange in septic patients
Formulaic methods of estimating calorie requirements in mechanically ventilated obese patients: a reappraisal
Hypoenergetic nutrition support in hospitalized obese patients: a simplified method for clinical application
Respiratory drive and pulmonary mechanics during haemodialysis with ultrafiltration in ventilated patients
Influence of body temperature, with or without sedation, on energy expenditure in severe head-injured patients
A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors
Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients
Predictive versus measured energy expenditure using limits-of-agreement analysis in hospitalized, obese patients
Beneficial effects of protease inhibitors on body composition and energy expenditure: a comparison between HIV-infected and AIDS patients
Effect of neuromuscular blockade on oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in sedated, mechanically ventilated children
The effect of smoking on energy expenditure and plasma catecholamine and nicotine levels during light physical activity
Effects of ultrafiltration, dialysis, and temperature on gas exchange during hemodiafiltration: a laboratory experiment
Highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced lipodystrophy has minor effects on human immunodeficiency virus-induced changes in lipolysis, but normalizes resting energy expenditure
Calculating energy requirements for men with HIV/AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
Retrospective evaluation of commonly used equations to predict energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients
Can measured resting energy expenditure be estimated by formulae in daily clinical nutrition practice?
Comparison of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in healthy nonobese and obese adults: a systematic review
One-year changes in energy expenditure and serum leptin following adjustable gastric banding in obese women
Validation of a new handheld device for measuring resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in children
Prospective study of resting energy expenditure changes in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy measured by indirect calorimetry
Resting energy expenditure measured longitudinally following hip fracture compared to predictive equations: is an injury adjustment required?
Resting energy expenditure and fuel metabolism following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese women: relationships with excess weight lost
Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review
Body composition, dietary intake, and energy expenditure after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty: a randomized clinical trial
Resting energy expenditure during mechanical ventilation and its relationship with the type of lesion
Treatment of refractory obesity in severely obese adults following management of newly diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change using the K4b2: oxygen consumption, gait efficiency, and heart rate for healthy adults during submaximal walking
Resting energy expenditure in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects was similar despite elevated sympathovagal balance
Effect of oral intake of capsaicinoid beadlets on catecholamine secretion and blood markers of lipolysis in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, cross-over study
Validation and comparison of two methods to assess human energy expenditure during free-living activities
Low validity of the Sensewear Pro3 activity monitor compared to indirect calorimetry during simulated free living in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip
An explorative study of metabolic responses to mental stress and yoga practices in yoga practitioners, non-yoga practitioners and individuals with metabolic syndrome
A New Differential Pressure Flow Meter for Measurement of Human Breath Flow: Simulation and Experimental Investigation
Detection and treatment of medical inpatients with or at-risk of malnutrition: Suggested procedures based on validated guidelines
Indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated patients. A systematic comparison of three instruments
Evaluation of a wearable body monitoring device during treadmill walking and jogging in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome
Decreased respiratory quotient in relation to resting energy expenditure in HIV-infected and noninfected subjects
What are the factors that influence the attainment of satisfactory energy intake in pediatric intensive care unit patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition?
Clinical usefulness of non-protein respiratory quotient measurement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Energy balance in patients with pressure ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Assessment of resting energy expenditure in pediatric mitochondrial diseases with indirect calorimetry
Comparisons of Predictive Equations for Resting Energy Expenditure in Patients with Cerebral Infarct during Acute Care
A short period of fasting before surgery conserves basal metabolism and suppresses catabolism according to indirect calorimetry performed under general anesthesia
Ventilator-derived carbon dioxide production to assess energy expenditure in critically ill patients: proof of concept
Evaluation of three indirect calorimetry devices in mechanically ventilated patients: which device compares best with the Deltatrac II(®)? A prospective observational study
Comparison of three indirect calorimetry devices and three methods of gas collection: a prospective observational study
Influence of different dialysis modalities in the measurement of resting energy expenditure in patients with acute kidney injury in ICU
Evaluation of a non-invasive multisensor accelerometer for calculating energy expenditure in ventilated intensive care patients compared to indirect calorimetry and predictive equations
A Comparative Study Examining the Impact of a Protein-Enriched Vs Normal Protein Postoperative Diet on Body Composition and Resting Metabolic Rate in Obese Patients after Sleeve Gastrectomy
New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile
Accuracy of Prediction Formulae for the Assessment of Resting Energy Expenditure in Hospitalized Children
The use of prealbumin and C-reactive protein for monitoring nutrition support in adult patients receiving enteral nutrition in an urban medical center
Do handheld calorimeters have a role in assessment of nutrition needs in hospitalized patients? A systematic review of literature
Minimum Time to Achieve the Steady State and Optimum Abbreviated Period to Estimate the Resting Energy Expenditure by Indirect Calorimetry in Healthy Young Adults
Nutrition Assessment With Indirect Calorimetry in Patients Evaluated for Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
Optimization of brain metabolism using metabolic-targeted therapeutic hypothermia can reduce mortality from traumatic brain injury
Monitoring Energy Expenditure Using a Multi-Sensor Device-Applications and Limitations of the SenseWear Armband in Athletic Populations
No Difference in Young Adult Athletes' Resting Energy Expenditure When Measured Under Inpatient or Outpatient Conditions
Accuracy of a Portable Indirect Calorimeter for Measuring Resting Energy Expenditure in Individuals With Cancer
Effect of high-intensity resistance circuit-based training in hypoxia on aerobic performance and repeat sprint ability
Accuracy of two Generic Prediction Equations and One Population-Specific Equation for Resting Energy Expenditure in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury
A 4-Week Preoperative Ketogenic Micronutrient-Enriched Diet Is Effective in Reducing Body Weight, Left Hepatic Lobe Volume, and Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: a Prospective Pilot Study
Guide to the assessment of physical activity: Clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
Weight loss induced by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation in obesity: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study
Predicting Energy Expenditure During Gradient Walking With a Foot Monitoring Device: Model-Based Approach
Standard medical nutrition therapy of 25 kcal/kg ideal bodyweight/day often does not reach even resting energy expenditure for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Higher Metabolic Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Case-Control Study
A systematic review and quantitative analysis of resting energy expenditure prediction equations in healthy overweight and obese children and adolescents
Compendium of Physical Activities Strongly Underestimates the Oxygen Cost During Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients
Prediction of Resting Energy Expenditure in Children: May Artificial Neural Networks Improve Our Accuracy?
Effectiveness and safety of pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy for the improvement of respiratory quotient in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus
Indirect calorimetry in humans: a postcalorimetric evaluation procedure for correction of metabolic monitor variability
Validity of Accelerometers for the Evaluation of Energy Expenditure in Obese and Overweight Individuals: A Systematic Review
Measurement of β-oxidation capacity of biological samples by respirometry: a review of principles and substrates
Criterion validity and reliability of a smartphone delivered sub-maximal fitness test for people with type 2 diabetes
Accuracy of Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure in Mexicans Living With HIV/AIDS With and Without Antiretroviral Therapy
Routine resting energy expenditure measurement increases effectiveness of dietary intervention in obesity
High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia
Indirect Calorimetry Performance Using a Handheld Device Compared to the Metabolic Cart in Outpatients with Cirrhosis
Defining accelerometer cut-points for different intensity levels in motor-complete spinal cord injury
SCI-SCREEN: A More Targeted Nutrition Screening Model to Detect Spinal Cord-Injured Patients at Risk of Malnutrition
Training-induced changes in daily energy expenditure: Methodological evaluation using wrist-worn accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and doubly labeled water technique
Predicting resting energy expenditure in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese adult hospital patients
Abbreviated Steady State Intervals for Measuring Resting Energy Expenditure in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis
A Comparative Analysis of Equations to Estimate Patient Energy Requirements Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Correction of Congenital Heart Disease.
The Novel Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Predict Resting Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients
Indirect Calorimetry Measurements Compared to Guideline Weight-Based Caloric Calculations in Critically Ill Stroke Patients
Measured vs Predicted Energy Expenditure in Mechanically Ventilated Adults With Acute, Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries.
An exploratory study of respiratory quotient calibration and association with postmenopausal breast cancer
Clinical Nutrition in Critical Care Medicine - Guideline of the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM)
Energy expenditure and indirect calorimetry in critical illness and convalescence: current evidence and practical considerations
A system for contact free energy expenditure assessment under free-living conditions: Monitoring metabolism for weight loss using carbon dioxide emission
A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of a Low-Calorie Ketogenic vs a Standard Low-Calorie Diet on Fat-Free Mass in Patients Receiving an Elipse™ Intragastric Balloon Treatment.
Are predictive equations a valid method of assessing the resting metabolic rate of overweight or obese former athletes?
Reliability of ActiGraph GT3X+ placement location in the estimation of energy expenditure during moderate and high-intensity physical activities in young and older adults.
Are spexin levels associated with metabolic syndrome, dietary intakes and body composition in children?
Proposal of a new equation for estimating resting energy expenditure of acute kidney injury patients on dialysis: a machine learning approach
Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers in Laboratory and Free-Living Settings for Patients With Chronic Pain: Criterion Validity Study.
The Functional Independence of Patients With Stroke Sequelae: How Important Is the Speed, Oxygen Consumption, and Energy Cost of Walking?
Assessing physical activity and function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review.
Resting Energy Expenditure of Master Athletes: Accuracy of Predictive Equations and Primary Determinants.
Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Affects Gut Microbiota Composition in Obesity: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial.
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