Individual and Household Risk Factors for Symptomatic Cholera Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aaron RichtermanLouise C Ivers


Cholera has caused 7 global pandemics, including the current one which has been ongoing since 1961. A systematic review of risk factors for symptomatic cholera infection has not been previously published. In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual and household risk factors for symptomatic cholera infection. We identified 110 studies eligible for inclusion in qualitative synthesis. Factors associated with symptomatic cholera that were eligible for meta-analysis included education less than secondary level (summary odds ratio [SOR], 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-4.92; I2 = 8%), unimproved water source (SOR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.18-5.54; I2 = 77%), open container water storage (SOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.09-3.76; I2 = 62%), consumption of food outside the home (SOR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.62-4.69; I2 = 64%), household contact with cholera (SOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.62-5.25; I2 = 89%), water treatment (SOR, 0.37; 95% CI, .21-.63; I2 = 74%), and handwashing (SOR, 0.29; 95% CI, .20-.43; I2 = 37%). Other notable associations with symptomatic infection included income/wealth, blood group, gastric acidity, infant breastf...Continue Reading


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Sep 6, 2018·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Louise C Ivers
Jun 8, 2019·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Wit WichaiditPavani K Ram
Dec 18, 2020·Journal of Water and Health·Gabrielle M StringDaniele S Lantagne
Oct 24, 2020·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Ruwan RatnayakeFrancesco Checchi
Apr 13, 2021·ACS Infectious Diseases·Denise ChacAna A Weil
Sep 11, 2021·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Basilua Andre MuzemboShin-Ichi Miyoshi
Oct 23, 2021·PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases·Hilary A DolstadLouise C Ivers

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