Induction of micronuclei in maize root-tip cells and a correlation with forward mutation at the yg2 locus

Environmental Mutagenesis
E D Wagner, M J Plewa


A standard protocol for a micronucleus assay in root tips of Zea mays was developed and calibrated using 137Cs gamma radiation, ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). The root tips were sampled 1, 3, and 5 days after the treatment period. Primary root tips (sampled 1 day after treatment) were the most responsive with the highest frequencies of micronuclei. The frequencies then decreased to control values after 3 days. By treating the same kernels for this assay and the yellow-green-2 (yg2) forward mutation assay, it was possible to analyze and compare the induction kinetics of micronuclei formation in root-tip cells and forward mutation at the yg2 locus in leaf primordial cells. Forward mutation at the yg2 locus by gamma rays, EMS, or ENU exhibited one hit kinetics. The induction of micronuclei demonstrated nonlinear kinetics with a significant increase over controls above 200 rads gamma rays, 10 mM EMS, or 250 microM ENU. ENU induced a higher frequency of micronuclei at all treatment concentrations than did gamma radiation or EMS. The data suggest that a higher relative proportion of yg2 mutant sectors induced by ENU may be due to chromosome aberrations than those induced by gamma radiation or EMS.


Feb 1, 1975·Mutation Research·W Schmid
Jan 1, 1985·Environmental Mutagenesis·W E Schy, M J Plewa
Feb 1, 1973·Journal of Theoretical Biology·A V Carrano, J A Heddle
Aug 1, 1969·Experimental Cell Research·O P AroraS R Rao
Jan 1, 1984·Environmental Mutagenesis·M J PlewaE D Wagner
Jan 1, 1981·Environmental Health Perspectives·M J Plewa, E D Wagner

Related Concepts

Cell Nucleus
Zea luxurians
Ethyl Methanesulfonate
X-Rays, Nuclear
Mutagenicity Tests

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.