Social bees and other insects are frequently parasitized by a large range of different microorganisms. Among these is Crithidia bombi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a common gut parasite of bumblebees, Bombus spp. (Insecta: Apidae). Bumblebees are important pollinators in commercial and natural environments. There are clear detrimental effects of C. bombi infections on the fitness of bumblebees. However, little has been known about how the bee's immune system responds to infections with trypanosome parasites. Here, we study the immune response of Bombus terrestris on infection by C. bombi. We measured the expression of four immune-related genes (Hemomucin, MyD88, Relish, and TEP7) using RT-qPCR in adult B. terrestris workers that were either healthy or infected with the trypanosome parasite C. bombi. The potential recognition gene Hemomucin was significantly upregulated in the infected bees. Further, there was substantial and significant variation in all four genes among different bumblebee colonies irrespective of infection status.
Helix pomatia lectin, an inducer of Drosophila immune response, binds to hemomucin, a novel surface mucin.
On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites
Transcriptional immune responses by honey bee larvae during invasion by the bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae
Characterization of a defensin from the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi induced by challenge with bacteria or the protozoan parasite Leishmania major
Bumble-bee foragers infected by a gut parasite have an impaired ability to utilize floral information
Innate immune responses regulate trypanosome parasite infection of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans
Relish regulates expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, shown by RNA interference
Differential expression of immune defences is associated with specific host-parasite interactions in insects
Analysis of a normalised expressed sequence tag (EST) library from a key pollinator, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris
Activation of autophagic programmed cell death and innate immune gene expression reveals immuno-competence of integumental epithelium in Bombyx mori infected by a dipteran parasitoid
Single and mixed-species trypanosome and microsporidia infections elicit distinct, ephemeral cellular and humoral immune responses in honey bees
A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae
Probing mixed-genotype infections I: extraction and cloning of infections from hosts of the trypanosomatid Crithidia bombi
Immune gene expression in Bombus terrestris: signatures of infection despite strong variation among populations, colonies, and sister workers
Coregulation of host-response genes in integument: switchover of gene expression correlation pattern and impaired immune responses induced by dipteran parasite infection in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites
Chemical characterisation of Nigerian red propolis and its biological activity against Trypanosoma Brucei
Gut microbiota instead of host genotype drive the specificity in the interaction of a natural host-parasite system
Pathways to immunity: temporal dynamics of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) immune response against a trypanosomal gut parasite
Seasonal variability of prevalence and occurrence of multiple infections shape the population structure of Crithidia bombi, an intestinal parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Robustness of the outcome of adult bumblebee infection with a trypanosome parasite after varied parasite exposures during larval development
Molecular tools and bumble bees: revealing hidden details of ecology and evolution in a model system
Qualitatively different immune response of the bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, to infection by different genotypes of the trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia bombi
Immune-cognitive system connectivity reduces bumblebee foraging success in complex multisensory floral environments
The Chemical Characterization of Nigerian Propolis samples and Their Activity Against Trypanosoma brucei
Trypanosomatid parasite dynamically changes the transcriptome during infection and modifies honey bee physiology.
Mucin family genes are essential for the growth and development of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei and almost invariably progresses to death unless treated. Discover the latest research on African trypanosomiasis here.