The relationship between miscarriage and fertility is complex. While most healthcare settings treat miscarriage as a problem of subfertility in assisted reproduction units, others believe that miscarriage occurs in super-fertile women. Infertile women undergoing assisted reproduction are at a greater risk of having a miscarriage especially at an advanced age compared with women conceiving naturally. Aberrant expression of immunological factors and chromosomal abnormalities underlie both infertility and miscarriage. Common risk factors include increased maternal age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pre-existing medical conditions and anatomical abnormalities of the reproductive system. Management pathways of both conditions may be similar with pre-implantation genetic testing and assisted reproductive technology used in both conditions. This paper discusses the synergies and differences between the two conditions in terms of their epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, risk factors and management strategies. The two conditions are related as degrees of severity of reproductive failure with common pathways in manifestation and management.
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Circulating autoimmune antibodies may be responsible for implantation failure in in vitro fertilization
Antibodies to phospholipids and nuclear antigens in non-pregnant women with unexplained spontaneous recurrent abortions
Up-regulated expression of CD56+, CD56+/CD16+, and CD19+ cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes in pregnant women with recurrent pregnancy losses
Autoantibodies and antisperm antibodies in sera and follicular fluids of infertile patients; relation to reproductive outcome after in-vitro fertilization
Immunohistochemical evidence for increased numbers of 'classic' CD57+ natural killer cells in the endometrium of women suffering spontaneous early pregnancy loss
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Genetic Association between Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class II Haplotypes and Reproduction Traits in Microminipigs
Association between the TOX3 rs3803662 C>T polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage in a southern Chinese population
The association of polymorphisms in promoter region of MMP2 and MMP9 with recurrent spontaneous abortion risk in Chinese population
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LncRNA HULC Polymorphism Is Associated With Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Susceptibility in the Southern Chinese Population
Daidzein supplementation enhances embryo survival by improving hormones, antioxidant capacity, and metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid in sows.
Identification of environmental chemicals targeting miscarriage genes and pathways using the comparative toxicogenomics database.
Neonatal and maternal outcomes among twin pregnancies stratified by mode of conception in the United States.
The correlation between chronic exposure to particulate matter and spontaneous abortion: A meta-analysis.
The association between miscarriage and fecundability: the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study.
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Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.