Inflammatory cytokines in experimental and human stroke.

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
K L LambertsenB Finsen

Abstract

Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase after stroke onset, corresponding to the therapeutic window (<4.5 hours), which is similar in human and experimental stroke. This review summarizes a large body of literature on the spatiotemporal and cellular production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6, focusing on the early phase in experimental and human stroke. We also review studies of cytokines in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in stroke. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 are upregulated early in peri-infarct microglia. Newer literature suggests that IL-6 is produced by microglia, in addition to neurons. Tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-producing macrophages infiltrate the infarct and peri-infarct with a delay. This information is discussed in the context of suggestions that neuronal sensitivity to ischemia may be modulated by cytokines. The fact that TNF and IL-1, and suppossedly also IL-6, are produced by microglia within the therapeuti...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
imaging techniques
PCR
dissections
flow cytometry
ELISA
transgenics
nuclear magnetic resonance

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