Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associat...Continue Reading
Psychiatric illness in first-degree relatives of patients with paranoid psychosis, schizophrenia and medical illness
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Prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders in persons making serious suicide attempts: a case-control study
Free cortisol levels after awakening: a reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity
Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study
Emotion management skills in sexually maltreated and nonmaltreated girls: a developmental psychopathology perspective
The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies
Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: the mediating role of emotional inhibition
The utility of the non-human primate; model for studying gene by environment interactions in behavioral research
Review of cognition and brain structure in schizophrenia: profiles, longitudinal course, and effects of treatment
Histories of childhood maltreatment in schizophrenia: relationships with premorbid functioning, symptomatology, and cognitive deficits
Emotion socialization in maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads: implications for children's adjustment
A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a genetic contribution to adult psychiatric disorders
Genotype and childhood sexual trauma moderate neurocognitive performance: a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and apolipoprotein E variants
Gene-by-environment (serotonin transporter and childhood maltreatment) interaction for anxiety sensitivity, an intermediate phenotype for anxiety disorders
What is the meaning of treatment resistant/refractory major depression (TRD)? A systematic review of current randomized trials
Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression
A laboratory-based study of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance among inner-city substance users: the role of emotional nonacceptance
Investigating the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met variant in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults
Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development
Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood adversity are associated with depression: New evidence for a gene-environment interaction
Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety
Early adversity and 5-HTT/BDNF genes: new evidence of gene-environment interactions on depressive symptoms in a general population
Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood
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A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity
Gene-environment interactions between HPA-axis genes and childhood maltreatment in depression: a systematic review
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Rumination as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Adulthood Depression/Anxiety in Non-clinical Participants
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Neurophysiological and Psychological Predictors of Social Functioning in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Development and Validation of an Instrument for the Detection of Early Traumatic Experiences (ExpTra-S) in Patients With Psychosis
Interactions of the GABRG2 polymorphisms and childhood trauma on suicide attempt and related traits in depressed patients.
Childhood adversity and psychotic disorders: Epidemiological evidence, theoretical models and clinical considerations.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by manic and/or depressive episodes and associated with uncommon shifts in mood, activity levels, and energy. Discover the latest research this illness here.
Discover the latest research on anxiety disorders including agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder here.