Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by Z-100, an immunomodulator extracted from human-type tubercle bacilli, in macrophages

The Journal of General Virology
Y EmoriMari Kannagi


Z-100 is an arabinomannan extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has various immunomodulatory activities, such as the induction of interleukin 12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines. The effects of Z-100 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are investigated in this paper. In MDMs, Z-100 markedly suppressed the replication of not only macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strain (HIV-1JR-CSF), but also HIV-1 pseudotypes that possessed amphotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus or vesicular stomatitis virus G envelopes. Z-100 was found to inhibit HIV-1 expression, even when added 24 h after infection. In addition, it substantially inhibited the expression of the pNL43lucDeltaenv vector (in which the env gene is defective and the nef gene is replaced with the firefly luciferase gene) when this vector was transfected directly into MDMs. These findings suggest that Z-100 inhibits virus replication, mainly at HIV-1 transcription. However, Z-100 also downregulated expression of the cell surface receptors CD4 and CCR5 in MDMs, suggesting some inhibitory effect on HIV-1 entry. Further experiments revealed that Z-100 induced IFN-beta production in these ...Continue Reading


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