Neuronal networks consist of different types of neurons that all play their own role in order to maintain proper network function. The two main types of neurons segregate in excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which together regulate the flow of information through the network. It has been proposed that changes in the relative strength in these two opposing forces underlie the symptoms observed in psychiatric disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Here, we review the role of alterations to the function of the inhibitory system as a cause of psychiatric disorders. First, we explore both patient and post-mortem evidence of inhibitory deficiency. We then discuss the function of different interneuron subtypes in the network and focus on the central role of a specific class of inhibitory neurons, parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Finally, we discuss genes known to be affected in different disorders and the effects that mutations in these genes have on the inhibitory system in cortex and hippocampus. We conclude that alterations to the inhibitory system are consistently identified in animal models of psychiatric disorders and, more specifically, that mutations affecting the function of parvalbumin-positive interneurons seem t...Continue Reading
Identification of a gene (FMR-1) containing a CGG repeat coincident with a breakpoint cluster region exhibiting length variation in fragile X syndrome
Immunocytochemical study of GABAergic neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus
Differential synaptic localization of two major gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunits on hippocampal pyramidal cells
G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRKs) mediate postsynaptic but not presynaptic transmitter actions in hippocampal neurons
Comorbidity of hospital-treated psychiatric and physical disorders with special reference to schizophrenia: a 28 year follow-up of the 1966 northern Finland general population birth cohort
Mutation of the Angelman ubiquitin ligase in mice causes increased cytoplasmic p53 and deficits of contextual learning and long-term potentiation
Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin
Immunohistochemical localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptor in the hippocampus of subjects with schizophrenia
Decrease in reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD67) expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a postmortem brain study
GABA transporter-1 mRNA in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: decreased expression in a subset of neurons
Input-dependent synaptic targeting of alpha(2)-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors in synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells of the rat
Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia
Abnormal early stages of task stimulus processing in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--evidence from event-related gamma oscillations
Immunohistochemical localization of GABAB receptor in the entorhinal cortex and inferior temporal cortex of schizophrenic brain
Reciprocal alterations in pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory markers at chandelier cell inputs to pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia
Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa proteins are reduced in autistic parietal and cerebellar cortices
Selective deficits in prefrontal cortical GABAergic neurons in schizophrenia defined by the presence of calcium-binding proteins
Loss of interneurons innervating pyramidal cell dendrites and axon initial segments in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced seizures
Postnatal development of pre- and postsynaptic GABA markers at chandelier cell connections with pyramidal neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex
Oligodendroglial density in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders: a study from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium
Chandelier cells control excessive cortical excitation: characteristics of whisker-evoked synaptic responses of layer 2/3 nonpyramidal and pyramidal neurons
Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors
Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Evidence that interaction between neuregulin 1 and its receptor erbB4 increases susceptibility to schizophrenia
Reduced sodium current in GABAergic interneurons in a mouse model of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
The distribution of chandelier cell axon terminals that express the GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the human neocortex
Immunoreactivity for the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit, somatostatin and Connexin36 distinguishes axoaxonic, basket, and bistratified interneurons of the rat hippocampus
Major defects in neocortical GABAergic inhibitory circuits in mice lacking the fragile X mental retardation protein
P/Q-type, but not N-type, calcium channels mediate GABA release from fast-spiking interneurons to pyramidal cells in rat prefrontal cortex
Nav1.1 localizes to axons of parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons: a circuit basis for epileptic seizures in mice carrying an Scn1a gene mutation
Homeostatic plasticity studied using in vivo hippocampal activity-blockade: synaptic scaling, intrinsic plasticity and age-dependence
Altered expression of genes involved in ATP biosynthesis and GABAergic neurotransmission in the ventral prefrontal cortex of suicides with and without major depression
Changes in density of calcium-binding-protein-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons in prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Modeling GABA alterations in schizophrenia: a link between impaired inhibition and altered gamma and beta range auditory entrainment
Nanodomain coupling between Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors promotes fast and efficient transmitter release at a cortical GABAergic synapse
GABA neurons and the mechanisms of network oscillations: implications for understanding cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia
Enhanced gamma-band activity in ADHD patients lacks correlation with memory performance found in healthy children
Reduced neural synchronization of gamma-band MEG oscillations in first-degree relatives of children with autism
Imbalance of neocortical excitation and inhibition and altered UP states reflect network hyperexcitability in the mouse model of fragile X syndrome
Epilepsy in Angelman syndrome: a questionnaire-based assessment of the natural history and current treatment options
Neuroligin 2 drives postsynaptic assembly at perisomatic inhibitory synapses through gephyrin and collybistin
Mouse neurexin-1alpha deletion causes correlated electrophysiological and behavioral changes consistent with cognitive impairments
Neuroligin-2 deletion selectively decreases inhibitory synaptic transmission originating from fast-spiking but not from somatostatin-positive interneurons
Evidence for gamma inhibition deficits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia
Expression of interneuron markers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the developing human and in schizophrenia
Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication
The GABA B receptor agonist CGP44532 and the positive modulator GS39783 reverse some behavioural changes related to positive syndromes of psychosis in mice
Genetic controls balancing excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis in neurodevelopmental disorder models
Identification and functional characterization of rare mutations of the neuroligin-2 gene (NLGN2) associated with schizophrenia
Autism in Dravet syndrome: prevalence, features, and relationship to the clinical characteristics of epilepsy and mental retardation
Dysbindin-1 mutant mice implicate reduced fast-phasic inhibition as a final common disease mechanism in schizophrenia
Maternal loss of Ube3a produces an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance through neuron type-specific synaptic defects
Association study of GIT1 gene with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Brazilian children and adolescents
Specific deletion of NaV1.1 sodium channels in inhibitory interneurons causes seizures and premature death in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome
Increased γ oscillations during voluntary selection processes in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Candidate autism gene screen identifies critical role for cell-adhesion molecule CASPR2 in dendritic arborization and spine development
Temporal dynamics of parvalbumin-expressing axo-axonic and basket cells in the rat medial prefrontal cortex in vivo
Excitatory/inhibitory synaptic imbalance leads to hippocampal hyperexcitability in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis
Quantitative assessment of CA1 local circuits: knowledge base for interneuron-pyramidal cell connectivity
Inhibition of inhibition in visual cortex: the logic of connections between molecularly distinct interneurons
Reduced brain somatostatin in mood disorders: a common pathophysiological substrate and drug target?
Parvalbumin-expressing basket-cell network plasticity induced by experience regulates adult learning
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show both common and distinct changes in cortical interneuron markers
Interneurons. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin⁺ GABAergic interneurons: from cellular design to microcircuit function
Thorough GABAergic innervation of the entire axon initial segment revealed by an optogenetic 'laserspritzer'
Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments
GIT1 and βPIX are essential for GABA(A) receptor synaptic stability and inhibitory neurotransmission
Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity
Common mechanisms of excitatory and inhibitory imbalance in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders
Shank3-mutant mice lacking exon 9 show altered excitation/inhibition balance, enhanced rearing, and spatial memory deficit
mGlu₅-GABAB interplay in animal models of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
Activity-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of GAD Expression in a Homeostatic Fashion Is Mediated by BDNF-Dependent and Independent Pathways
MeCP2 regulates the timing of critical period plasticity that shapes functional connectivity in primary visual cortex
Altered modulation of gamma oscillation frequency by speed of visual motion in children with autism spectrum disorders
Perturbed Hippocampal Synaptic Inhibition and γ-Oscillations in a Neuroligin-4 Knockout Mouse Model of Autism
Cadherin-13, a risk gene for ADHD and comorbid disorders, impacts GABAergic function in hippocampus and cognition
Loss of MeCP2 in Parvalbumin-and Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons in Mice Leads to Distinct Rett Syndrome-like Phenotypes
Interneuronal DISC1 regulates NRG1-ErbB4 signalling and excitatory-inhibitory synapse formation in the mature cortex
Reduction in parvalbumin expression not loss of the parvalbumin-expressing GABA interneuron subpopulation in genetic parvalbumin and shank mouse models of autism
Reduced Labeling of Parvalbumin Neurons and Perineuronal Nets in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Subjects with Schizophrenia
GABAergic Neuron-Specific Loss of Ube3a Causes Angelman Syndrome-Like EEG Abnormalities and Enhances Seizure Susceptibility
The Current Status of Somatostatin-Interneurons in Inhibitory Control of Brain Function and Plasticity
Myelination of parvalbumin interneurons: a parsimonious locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia
Jointly reduced inhibition and excitation underlies circuit-wide changes in cortical processing in Rett syndrome
Disinhibition of somatostatin-positive GABAergic interneurons results in an anxiolytic and antidepressant-like brain state
Neuroligin 2 nonsense variant associated with anxiety, autism, intellectual disability, hyperphagia, and obesity
Modulation of excitation on parvalbumin interneurons by neuroligin-3 regulates the hippocampal network
Dysbindin Deficiency Modifies the Expression of GABA Neuron and Ion Permeation Transcripts in the Developing Hippocampus
Ube3a loss increases excitability and blunts orientation tuning in the visual cortex of Angelman syndrome model mice
Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Developmental Trajectories
Exploring the Validity of Proposed Transgenic Animal Models of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Histone demethylase KDM5C is a SAHA-sensitive central hub at the crossroads of transcriptional axes involved in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders.
δ subunit-containing GABAA IPSCs are driven by both synaptic and diffusional GABA in mouse dentate granule neurons.
Transcriptomic Landscape and Functional Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cerebral Organoids in Schizophrenia.
Differential contribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in shaping neurovascular coupling in different epileptic neural states.
A mechanistic hypothesis for the impairment of synaptic plasticity by soluble Aβ oligomers from Alzheimer's brain.
Gain-of-function mutations in the UNC-2/CaV2α channel lead to excitation-dominant synaptic transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Synaptic deficits in iPSC-derived cortical interneurons in schizophrenia are mediated by NLGN2 and rescued by N-acetylcysteine
Challenges in Physiological Phenotyping of hiPSC-Derived Neurons: From 2D Cultures to 3D Brain Organoids
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Tourette Syndrome: A Historical Perspective, Its Current Use and the Influence of Comorbidities in Treatment Response
Sex-Dependent Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Spatial Memory and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Signaling in a Developmental "Two-Hit" Mouse Model Combining BDNF Haploinsufficiency and Chronic Glucocorticoid Stimulation
erbb4 Deficits in Chandelier Cells of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Confer Cognitive Dysfunctions: Implications for Schizophrenia
Prenatal Androgenization Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior in Female Rats, Associated with Reduction of Inhibitory Interneurons and Increased BDNF in Hippocampus and Cortex
Mice With Decreased Number of Interneurons Exhibit Aberrant Spontaneous and Oscillatory Activity in the Cortex
EEG power spectral slope differs by ADHD status and stimulant medication exposure in early childhood
Profiling parvalbumin interneurons using iPSC: challenges and perspectives for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
The emerging role of chromatin remodelers in neurodevelopmental disorders: a developmental perspective.
Effects of prenatal stress on neuroactive steroid responses to acute stress in adult male and female rats.
Brain Network Simulations Indicate Effects of Neuregulin-1 Genotype on Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Cortical Dynamics.
X-irradiation of developing hippocampal neurons causes changes in neuron population phenotypes, dendritic morphology and synaptic protein expression in surviving neurons at maturity.
Serotonin (5-HT) neuron-specific inactivation of Cadherin-13 impacts 5-HT system formation and cognitive function.
A novel telencephalon-opto-hypothalamic morphogenetic domain coexpressing Foxg1 and Otp produces most of the glutamatergic neurons of the medial extended amygdala.
Identification of a Core Amino Acid Motif within the α Subunit of GABAA Rs that Promotes Inhibitory Synaptogenesis and Resilience to Seizures
Maternal antioxidant treatment prevents the adverse effects of prenatal stress on the offspring's brain and behavior
How stress physically re-shapes the brain: Impact on brain cell shapes, numbers and connections in psychiatric disorders.
Early NMDA Receptor Ablation in Interneurons Causes an Activity-Dependent E/I Imbalance in vivo in Prefrontal Cortex Pyramidal Neurons of a Mouse Model Useful for the Study of Schizophrenia.
Deficiency of intellectual disability-related gene Brpf1 reduced inhibitory neurotransmission in MGE-derived GABAergic interneurons.
Cadherin-13 is a critical regulator of GABAergic modulation in human stem-cell-derived neuronal networks.
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research on autism.