Innate lymphoid cell and adaptive immune cell cross-talk: A talk meant not to forget

Journal of Leukocyte Biology
V Kumar


Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a relatively new class of innate immune cells with phenotypical characters of lymphocytes but genotypically or functionally behave as typical innate immune cells. They have been classically divided into 3 groups (group 1 ILCs or ILC1s, group 2 ILCs or ILC2s, and group 3 ILCs or ILC3s). They serve as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and allergens at mucosal surfaces. The adaptive immune response works effectively in association with innate immunity as innate immune cells serve as APCs to directly stimulate the adaptive immune cells (various sets of T and B cells). Additionally, innate immune cells also secrete various effector molecules, including cytokines or chemokines impacting the function, differentiation, proliferation, and reprogramming among adaptive immune cells to maintain immune homeostasis. Only superantigens do not require their processing by innate immune cells as they are recognized directly by T cells and B cells. Thus, a major emphasis of the current article is to describe the cross-talk between different ILCs and adaptive immune cells during different conditions varying from normal physiological situations to different infectious diseases to allergic asthma.


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