Insights into disparities observed with COVID-19.

Journal of Internal Medicine
J M Carethers


The onset of human disease by infection with SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 has revealed risk factors for disease severity. There are four identified factors that put one at high risk for infection and/or mortality creating a disparity: age, co-morbidities, race/ethnicity and gender. Data indicate that the older a person is, and/or the presence of obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease place one at higher risk for COVID-19. In the United States, specific race/ethnicities, particularly African Americans and Native Americans, are strong COVID-19 risk components. Male gender has also emerged as a severity risk factor. For age and racial/ethnicities, the accumulation of health co-morbidities is common precipitating mechanisms. In particular, underlying socio-economic structures in the United States likely drive development of co-morbidities, putting affected populations at higher risk for severe COVID-19. Sudden cardiac death triggered by a common sodium channel variant in African Americans with COVID-19 has not been evaluated as a cause for racial disparity. There is no evidence that racial/ethnic differences for COVID-19 are caused by ABO blood groups, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhib...Continue Reading


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