PMID: 36543Apr 1, 1979

Insulin release: the fuel hypothesis

Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
W J MalaisseJohn C Hutton

Abstract

The immediate and direct regulation of insulin release by circulating nutrients, especially glucose, is thought to be mediated in the pancreatic B-cell by a sequence of metabolic, ionic, and motile events. On the basis of previous work, it is assumed that the process by which glucose is recognized as an insulinotropic agent entirely depends on the metabolic changes evoked by the sugar in the islet cells. Several factors are considered as possible candidates for the coupling between these metabolic changes and subsequent ionic events such as altered phosphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, and calcium handling. It is acknowledged that changes in the concentrations of glycolytic intermediates and cyclic nucleotides (adenosine- or guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate), or both, could play a modulatory role upon stimulated insulin release. However, the initiation of insulin release seems to depend on the generation of two essential coupling factors: H+ and reduced pyridine nucleotides. The changes in H+ fluxes may account for the glucose-induced decrease in K+ and Ca2+ fractional outflow rate, all three parameters displaying hyperbolic-like dose-response curves with half-maximal values at noninsulinotropic glucose concentrations. T...Continue Reading

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