Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Mechanisms and Structural Characteristics in Antiretroviral Therapy-Experienced, Integrase Inhibitor-Naive Adults With HIV-1 Infection Treated With Dolutegravir Plus 2 Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in the DAWNING Study.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mark UnderwoodRuolan Wang

Abstract

At Week 48 in the phase IIIb DAWNING study, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors demonstrated superiority to ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in achieving virologic suppression in adults with HIV-1 who failed first-line therapy. Here we report emergent HIV-1 drug resistance and mechanistic underpinnings among dolutegravir-treated adults in DAWNING. Population viral genotyping, phenotyping, and clonal analyses were performed on participants meeting confirmed virologic withdrawal (CVW) criteria on dolutegravir-containing regimens. Dolutegravir binding to and structural changes in HIV-1 integrase-DNA complexes with INSTI resistance-associated substitutions were evaluated. Of participants who received dolutegravir through Week 48 plus an additional 110 weeks for this assessment, 6 met CVW criteria with treatment-emergent INSTI resistance-associated substitutions and 1 had R263R/K at baseline but not at CVW. All 7 achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (5 achieved <50 copies/mL) before CVW. Treatment-emergent G118R was detected in 5 participants, occurring with ≥2 other integrase substitutions, including R263R/K, in 3 participants and without other integrase substituti...Continue Reading

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