Integrator: surprisingly diverse functions in gene expression

Trends in Biochemical Sciences
David Baillat, Eric J Wagner


The discovery of the metazoan-specific Integrator (INT) complex represented a breakthrough in our understanding of noncoding U-rich small nuclear RNA (UsnRNA) maturation and has triggered a reevaluation of their biosynthesis mechanism. In the decade since, significant progress has been made in understanding the details of its recruitment, specificity, and assembly. While some discrepancies remain on how it interacts with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and the details of its recruitment to UsnRNA genes, preliminary models have emerged. Recent provocative studies now implicate INT in the regulation of protein-coding gene transcription initiation and RNAPII pause-release, thereby broadening the scope of INT functions in gene expression regulation. We discuss the implications of these findings while putting them into the context of what is understood about INT function at UsnRNA genes.


Jan 26, 2016·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·Ilaria PettinatiChristopher J Schofield
Mar 6, 2016·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·Birthe B KragelundRasmus Hartmann-Petersen
May 18, 2016·Cell Reports·Stefan BoeingJesper Q Svejstrup
Jul 20, 2016·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Monica Rienzo, Amelia Casamassimi
May 5, 2017·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Antonio FedericoAmelia Casamassimi
Jun 16, 2017·Open Biology·Joana Guiro, Shona Murphy
Aug 3, 2017·Chromosoma·Oliver J GrussUtz Fischer
Sep 19, 2019·Genes & Development·Deirdre C TatomerJeremy E Wilusz
Feb 23, 2020·Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology·Deirdre C Tatomer, Jeremy E Wilusz
Aug 21, 2019·Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN·Xuemin ZhangDe Wu
Oct 28, 2019·PLoS Computational Biology·Sean WestDario Ghersi
May 24, 2020·Nature Communications·Quentin Angelo ThomasSebastian Marquardt
Apr 12, 2017·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Yixuan WuLiang Tong
Oct 4, 2017·Nucleic Acids Research·Claudia IasilloTorben Heick Jensen
Jun 30, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Liming HouBrian David Dynlacht
Jan 10, 2019·European Journal of Human Genetics : EJHG·Max KrallAnne M Slavotinek


Aug 15, 2002·Nucleic Acids Research·Isabelle CallebautJean-Pierre de Villartay
Apr 30, 2008·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Gauri W Jawdekar, R William Henry
Oct 18, 2008·Nature Reviews. Genetics·William F MarzluffRobert J Duronio
May 20, 2009·Molecular Cell·Md Sohail AkhtarAseem Z Ansari
Jun 3, 2009·Genes & Development·Patricia Richard, James L Manley
Jul 17, 2009·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Yongjiang LiWeidong Wang
Aug 18, 2009·Molecular Cell·Jun HuangJunjie Chen
Sep 30, 2009·The Journal of Cell Biology·Jeffrey R SkaarMichele Pagano
May 12, 2010·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Sylvain EgloffShona Murphy
Jul 28, 2010·Biochemical Society Transactions·Jiandong Chen, Eric J Wagner
Oct 12, 2010·Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology·Ko-Hsuan Hung, William E Stumph
May 31, 2011·Cell·Anna MalovannayaJun Qin
Jun 21, 2011·Molecular Cell·Beate Schwer, Stewart Shuman
Jul 20, 2011·Molecular and Cellular Biology·Clément Carré, Ramin Shiekhattar
Aug 17, 2011·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Lidija StaresincicJesper Q Svejstrup
Dec 6, 2011·Molecular Cell·Sylvain EgloffShona Murphy
Jan 19, 2012·Molecular and Cellular Biology·Todd R Albrecht, Eric J Wagner
Aug 16, 2012·Genes & Development·Karel KubicekRichard Stefl
Jun 12, 2013·Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA·Natoya PeartEric J Wagner
Aug 21, 2013·Chemical Reviews·Dirk Eick, Matthias Geyer
Aug 30, 2013·Journal of Cell Science·Feng ZhangXiaochun Yu
Oct 1, 2013·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·Jonas O P CarlstenClaes M Gustafsson
Oct 4, 2013·Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology·Zachary C PossDylan J Taatjes
Jan 24, 2014·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·A Gregory Matera, Zefeng Wang
Feb 18, 2014·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Steven D Hanes
Mar 5, 2014·Molecular and Cellular Biology·Kehui XiangJames L Manley
May 21, 2014·ELife·Jing-Ping HsinJames L Manley
Jun 22, 2014·Journal of Molecular Biology·Peter L HsuGabriele Varani

Related Concepts

SMN1 gene
GTF2H3 gene
Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
RNA Polymerase II
Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B
Small Nuclear RNA
SSU72 gene
INTS9 gene
Transcription factor TFIIH

Related Feeds

Alzheimer's Disease: Transcription

Transcription involves copying (transcribing) the gene's DNA sequence into RNA. Impaired transcription is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to transcription and this disease.

Cajal Bodies & Gems

Cajal bodies or coiled bodies are dense foci of coilin protein. Gemini of Cajal bodies, or gems, are microscopically similar to Cajal bodies. It is believed that Cajal bodies play important roles in RNA processing while gems assist the Cajal bodies. Find the latest research on Cajal bodies and gems here.

Alzheimer's Disease: RNA Regulation

RNA regulation involves several mechanisms that are used by cells to decreases or increase the production of RNA. Issues with RNA regulation are associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to RNA regulation and this disease.

Cell Checkpoints & Regulators

Cell cycle checkpoints are a series of complex checkpoint mechanisms that detect DNA abnormalities and ensure that DNA replication and repair are complete before cell division. They are primarily regulated by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Here is the latest research.