Intracellular Vibrio parahaemolyticus escapes the vacuole and establishes a replicative niche in the cytosol of epithelial cells

MBio
Marcela De Souza Santos, Kim Orth

Abstract

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally disseminated Gram-negative marine bacterium and the leading cause of seafood-borne acute gastroenteritis. Pathogenic bacterial isolates encode two type III secretion systems (T3SS), with the second system (T3SS2) considered the main virulence factor in mammalian hosts. For many decades, V. parahaemolyticus has been studied as an exclusively extracellular bacterium. However, the recent characterization of the T3SS2 effector protein VopC has suggested that this pathogen has the ability to invade, survive, and replicate within epithelial cells. Herein, we characterize this intracellular lifestyle in detail. We show that following internalization, V. parahaemolyticus is contained in vacuoles that develop into early endosomes, which subsequently mature into late endosomes. V. parahaemolyticus then escapes into the cytoplasm prior to vacuolar fusion with lysosomes. Vacuolar acidification is an important trigger for this escape. The cytoplasm serves as the pathogen's primary intracellular replicative niche; cytosolic replication is rapid and robust, with cells often containing over 150 bacteria by the time of cell lysis. These results show how V. parahaemolyticus successfully establishes an intrac...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jul 11, 2015·Small GTPases·Daniel Henry Stones, Anne Marie Krachler
Oct 17, 2015·Environmental Microbiology·Audrey S VanhoveDelphine Destoumieux-Garzón
Dec 3, 2014·Cellular Microbiology·Marcela De Souza Santos, Kim Orth
Sep 9, 2017·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Ekaterina S MarakasovaAncha Baranova
Mar 21, 2018·Journal of Bacteriology·Suneeta ChimalapatiKim Orth
Dec 19, 2019·Microbiology and Immunology·Shigeaki MatsudaToshio Kodama
May 5, 2020·Environmental Microbiology·Delphine Destoumieux-GarzónLuigi Vezzulli
Feb 11, 2020·Frontiers in Microbiology·Gustavo Espinoza-VergaraParisa Noorian
Jun 4, 2019·Microbiology Spectrum·Marcela De Souza Santos, Kim Orth

Methods Mentioned

BETA
GTPases
confocal microscopy
transmission electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy

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