Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) is the most widely used method of intrapartum surveillance, and our objective is to review its ability to prevent perinatal brain injury and death. Studies that quantified intrapartum EFM and its relation to specific neurologic outcomes (seizures, periventricular leukomalacia, cerebral palsy, death) were eligible for inclusion. MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 2006 for studies that examined the relationship between intrapartum EFM and perinatal brain injury using these MeSH and text words: "cardiotocography," "electronic fetal monitoring," "intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring," "intrapartum fetal monitoring," and "fetal heart rate monitoring." This search strategy identified 1,628 articles, and 41 were selected for further review. Articles were excluded for the following reasons: in case reports, letters, commentaries, and review articles, intrapartum EFM was not quantified, or specific perinatal neurologic morbidity was not measured. Three observational studies and a 2001 meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials were selected for determination of the effect of intrapartum EFM on perinatal brain injury. Electronic fetal monitoring was introduced into widespread clinical ...Continue Reading
The relative risks of caesarean section (intrapartum and elective) and vaginal delivery: a detailed analysis to exclude the effects of medical disorders and other acute pre-existing physiological disturbances
Effects of electronic fetal-heart-rate monitoring, as compared with periodic auscultation, on the neurologic development of premature infants
Ten-year experience of intrapartum fetal monitoring in Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center
Intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring versus intermittent auscultation: a meta-analysis
Plymouth randomized trial of cardiotocogram only versus ST waveform plus cardiotocogram for intrapartum monitoring in 2400 cases
Long-term follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukaemia treated with pentostatin: lymphocyte subpopulations and residual bone marrow infiltration
Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring: research guidelines for interpretation. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Research Planning Workshop
A multicenter controlled trial of fetal pulse oximetry in the intrapartum management of nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns
Prediction of neonatal state by computer analysis of fetal heart rate tracings: the antepartum arm of the SisPorto multicentre validation study
ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists, Number 70, December 2005 (Replaces Practice Bulletin Number 62, May 2005). Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring
Intrapartum signal quality with external fetal heart rate monitoring: a two way trial of external Doppler CTG ultrasound and the abdominal fetal electrocardiogram
American medicine as religious practice: care of the sick as a sacred obligation and the unholy descent into secularization
Obstetric conditions and risk of first ever mental health contact during infancy, childhood and adolescence
Refusal of emergency caesarean delivery in cases of non-reassuring fetal heart rate is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality
Tailoring systematic reviews to meet critical priorities in maternal health in the intrapartum period
Using malpractice claims to identify risk factors for neurological impairment among infants following non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labour
Suboptimal care and metabolic acidemia is associated with neonatal encephalopathy but not with neonatal seizures alone: a population-based clinical audit
Correlation of arterial fetal base deficit and lactate changes with severity of variable heart rate decelerations in the near-term ovine fetus
Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and its relationship to neonatal and infant mortality in the United States
Abnormal fetal heart rate tracing patterns in patients with thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid: association with perinatal outcomes
Can caesarean delivery prevent cerebral palsy? Medico-legal implications of a French ecological study
Fetal heart rate monitoring category 3 during the 2nd stage of labor is an independent predictor of fetal acidosis
Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance: American College of Nurse-Midwives
Human C-reactive protein enhances vulnerability of immature rats to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage: a preliminary study
Does the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) code accurately identify neonates who clinically have hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?
Stemming the Standard-of-Care SPRAWL: Clinician Self-Interest and the Case of Electronic Fetal Monitoring
Maternity Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Utilization of Intermittent Fetal Monitoring: A Qualitative Study.
Non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns: Is it a risk factor for long- term pediatric cardiovascular diseases of the offspring?
A prospective cohort study of fetal heart rate monitoring: deceleration area is predictive of fetal acidemia
Brain Injury & Trauma
brain injury after impact to the head is due to both immediate mechanical effects and delayed responses of neural tissues.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.