PMID: 832075Jan 22, 1977Paper

Intrauterine deposition of calcium on copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices

British Medical Journal
C GosdenN B Loudon


Copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) removed after various times in utero were examined by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the elements present. As time in utero increased these devices became increasingly calcified. This calcification may limit the release of copper from the devices and decrease the specific contraceptive effectiveness of copper over an enert plastic device. Conversely, any teratogenic effects attributable to the copper may decrease with time in utero and depend on the extent of calcification. Even though the amount of copper in the device is not significantly diminished after two years, devices should not remain in situ for over two years because calcium accumulation probably prevents further diffusion of copper. Calcification can begin as early as six months after insertion. Consequently a careful review of the amount of time a copper-containing IUD should be left in situ should be undertaken.


Mar 1, 1986·Advances in Contraception : the Official Journal of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception·L G KeithM Method
Jun 1, 1985·Advances in Contraception : the Official Journal of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception·L G Keith, R Bailey
Jun 9, 1979·British Medical Journal·M Pollock
Oct 22, 1977·British Medical Journal·M Cohen
Jul 29, 2004·Journal of Clinical Pathology·R I Cameron, W G McCluggage
Aug 6, 1977·British Medical Journal
Jan 1, 1978·Drug Metabolism Reviews·A Zaffaroni
Feb 1, 1984·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·E N ChantlerI Brough
Feb 1, 1980·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·B L Sheppard, J Bonnar
Jun 1, 1986·Advances in Contraception : the Official Journal of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception·W YuanJ Fan
Jan 1, 1980·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·J Guillebaud

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