PMID: 39813Jan 1, 1978

Intrauterine devices: medicated and nonmedicated

International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
D R Mishell


The main benefits of intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a lack of adverse systemic effects, excellent effectiveness, high continuation rates and the single act of motivation required for use. First year failure rates range from 2% to 3%, but decline steadily thereafter to a cumulative annual failure rate of less than 1% after six years. The risks of IUDs include increased blood loss, uterine perforation, pelvic infection and pregnancy-related complications. The incidence of perforation of the uterine fundus ranges from 1:1000 to 1:2500 insertions, while that of cervical perforation with the copper devices ranges from 1:600 to 1:1000. IUD use is associated with about a three-fold increased incidence of developing acute salpingitis in comparison with use of oral contraceptives and diaphragms. If pregnancy occurs with an IUD in place, there is a three-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion, a ten-fold increased risk of ectopic pregnancy (5% of all IUD pregnancies) and a possible increased incidence of sepsis during the pregnancy.


Nov 18, 1976·The New England Journal of Medicine·W CatesC W Tyler
Dec 1, 1976·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·H J TatumA K Jain
Mar 1, 1975·Contraception·A K Jain
Apr 1, 1975·Contraception·H J TatumD M Phillips
Nov 1, 1975·British Medical Journal·P WilliamsM Vessey
Nov 1, 1973·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·H J Tatum
Dec 1, 1970·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·H LehfeldtF Gorstein
Sep 1, 1966·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·D R MishellD L Moyer

Related Concepts

Contraceptives, Oral
Pelvic Infection
Pregnancy, Tubal
Abortion, Tubal
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Postoperative Hemorrhage

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