PMID: 10886432Jul 25, 2000

Invisible nursing: exploring health outcomes at a global level. Relationships between infant and under-5 mortality rates and the distribution of health professionals, GNP per capita, and female literacy

Journal of Advanced Nursing
J J Robinson, H Wharrad

Abstract

To explore the relationship between the global distribution of health professionals (physicians and nurses), gross national product per capita (GNP), female literacy and the health outcome indicators of infant, and under-5 mortality rates using available data from United Nations' (UN) sources. To consider the reliability and validity of the variables included, and the implications of the findings for health policy and practice, and for further research. Using a database on 155 countries, regression analyses were performed using GNP, female literacy, numbers of physicians per 1000 population and numbers of nurses per 1000 population as independent variables, and infant mortality (IMR) and under-5 mortality rates (u5MR) as dependent variables. Linear regression analyses give R2 values for the two mortality indicators (IMR and u5MR) of 63% and 66% for physicians and 51% and 52% for nurses. Multiple linear regression analyses reveal a more complex picture. Countries with high ratios of physicians and nurses to population relative to their GNP also tend to show low IMRs and u5MRs. However, when female literacy is included in the model, the majority of these outlying countries move back towards the regression line. Nurses disappear f...Continue Reading

References

Jul 1, 1994·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·I Blue, T Harpham
Jul 15, 1999·Journal of Advanced Nursing·H Wharrad, J J Robinson
Jun 6, 2009·Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition·Malay Kanti MridhaMarge Koblinsky
Oct 26, 2010·The Nursing Clinics of North America·Karen M Robinson

Citations

Aug 3, 2002·Nursing & Health Sciences·Katsuya Kanda, Shimpei Kodama
Jan 12, 2001·International nursing review·J Buchan
May 29, 2007·Scandinavian Journal of Public Health·Carl Otto SchellAnna Mia Ekström
Sep 1, 2001·Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses : JSPN·R L Foster
Jul 25, 2009·Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice·Allison Squires, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
Apr 20, 2012·Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice·Allison Squires, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
Sep 14, 2012·Human Resources for Health·Kate L MandevilleMwapatsa Mipando
Jan 23, 2009·Human Resources for Health·Michael A Munga, Ottar Maestad
Jan 29, 2011·Human Resources for Health·Carla Castillo-Laborde
Sep 25, 2009·American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education·Claire Anderson, Billy Futter
Jun 15, 2013·The European Journal of Health Economics : HEPAC : Health Economics in Prevention and Care·Fabrizio CarmignaniKam Ki Tang
Sep 16, 2004·Journal of Health Organization and Management·Liz Stubbings, Janet M Scott
Sep 4, 2015·The Journal of Rural Health : Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association·Bronwyn E FieldsJanice F Bell
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Nov 3, 2004·Lancet·Sudhir Anand, Till Bärnighausen
Mar 31, 2015·PloS One·Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-FlórezAbel Armando Arredondo López
Jan 8, 2019·Hypertension·Rajesh VedanthanEllen Magenheim
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Jul 2, 2017·International Journal for Equity in Health·Virginia WisemanGraham Roberts

Related Concepts

Production
Illiteracy
Postneonatal Mortality
Nurses
Physicians
Regression Analysis
World Bank
World Health
Outcomes Research

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