Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sets in motion cascades of biochemical changes that result in delayed cell death and altered neuronal architecture. Studies have demonstrated that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) effectively reduces apoptosis following a number of stimuli. The Wnt family of proteins, and growth factors are two major factors that regulate GSK-3 activity. In the absence of stimuli, GSK-3 is constitutively active and is complexed with Axin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and casein kinase Iα (CK1α) and phosphorylates ß-Catenin leading to its degradation. Binding of Wnt to Frizzled receptors causes the translocation of GSK-3 to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates and inactivates the Frizzled co-receptor lipoprotein-related protein 6 (LRP6). Furthermore, the translocation of GSK-3 reduces ß-Catenin phosphorylation and degradation, leading to ß-Catenin accumulation and gene expression. Growth factors activate Akt, which in turn inhibits GSK-3 activity by direct phosphorylation, leading to a reduction in apoptosis. Using a rodent model, we found that TBI caused a rapid, but transient, increase in LRP6 phosphorylation that is followed by a modest decrease in ß-Catenin phosphorylation. Phospho-GS...Continue Reading
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