Involvement of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling pathway in TBI pathology and neurocognitive outcome

PloS One
Pramod K DashShibani Pati

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sets in motion cascades of biochemical changes that result in delayed cell death and altered neuronal architecture. Studies have demonstrated that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) effectively reduces apoptosis following a number of stimuli. The Wnt family of proteins, and growth factors are two major factors that regulate GSK-3 activity. In the absence of stimuli, GSK-3 is constitutively active and is complexed with Axin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and casein kinase Iα (CK1α) and phosphorylates ß-Catenin leading to its degradation. Binding of Wnt to Frizzled receptors causes the translocation of GSK-3 to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates and inactivates the Frizzled co-receptor lipoprotein-related protein 6 (LRP6). Furthermore, the translocation of GSK-3 reduces ß-Catenin phosphorylation and degradation, leading to ß-Catenin accumulation and gene expression. Growth factors activate Akt, which in turn inhibits GSK-3 activity by direct phosphorylation, leading to a reduction in apoptosis. Using a rodent model, we found that TBI caused a rapid, but transient, increase in LRP6 phosphorylation that is followed by a modest decrease in ß-Catenin phosphorylation. Phospho-GS...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
ubiquitination
dissector

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