Ionized calcium in normal serum, ultrafiltrates, and whole blood determined by ion-exchange electrodes

The Journal of Clinical Investigation
E W Moore

Abstract

Ion-exchange calcium electrodes represent the first practical method for the direct measurement of ionized calcium [Ca(++)] in biologic fluids. Using both "static" and "flow-through" electrodes, serum [Ca(++)] was within a rather narrow range: 0.94-1.33 mmoles/liter (mean, 1.14 mmoles/liter). Within a given individual, [Ca(++)] varied only about 6% over a several month period. Consistent pH effects on [Ca(++)] were observed in serum and whole blood, [Ca(++)] varying inversely with pH. Less consistent pH effects were also noted in ultrafiltrates, believed to largely represent precipitation of certain calcium complexes from a supersaturated solution. Heparinized whole blood [Ca(++)] was significantly less than in corresponding serum at normal blood pH, related to the formation of a calcium-heparin complex. [Ca(++)] in ultrafiltrates represented a variable fraction (66.7-90.2%) of total diffusible calcium. There was no apparent correlation between serum ionized and total calcium concentrations. Thus, neither serum total calcium nor total ultrafiltrable calcium provided a reliable index of serum [Ca(++)]. Change in serum total calcium was almost totally accounted for by corresponding change in protein-bound calcium [CaProt]. About ...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Calcium [EPC]
Tissue Membrane
Heparin
Filtration
Whole Blood
Study, Methodological
Calcium
Complex (molecular entity)
ALB
Ionized calcium

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