Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an escalating number of cases and fatalities worldwide. Preliminary evidence from these patients, as well as past coronavirus epidemics, indicates that those infected suffer from disproportionate complement activation as well as excessive coagulation, leading to thrombotic complications and poor outcome. In non-coronavirus cohorts, evidence has accumulated of an interaction between the complement and coagulation systems, with one amplifying activation of the other. A pressing question is therefore if COVID-19 associated thrombosis could be caused by overactivation of the complement cascade? In this review, we summarize the literature on thrombotic complications in COVID-19, complement activation in coronavirus infections, and the crosstalk between the complement and coagulation systems. We demonstrate how the complement system is able to activate the coagulation cascade and platelets, inhibit fibrinolysis and stimulate endothelial cells. We also describe how these interactions see clinical relevance in several disorders where overactive complement results in a prothrombotic clinical presentation, and how it could be cli...Continue Reading
Coagulation, inflammation, and apoptosis: different roles for protein S and the protein S-C4b binding protein complex.
New aspects in thrombotic research: complement induced switch in mast cells from a profibrinolytic to a prothrombotic phenotype
A novel C5a receptor-tissue factor cross-talk in neutrophils links innate immunity to coagulation pathways
Effects of MASP-1 of the complement system on activation of coagulation factors and plasma clot formation
Microparticle-associated tissue factor activity is reduced by inhibition of the complement protein 5 in Neisseria meningitidis-exposed whole blood
The key roles of complement and tissue factor in Escherichia coli-induced coagulation in human whole blood
Distinct contributions of complement factors to platelet activation and fibrin formation in venous thrombus development.
Blockade of the C5a-C5aR axis alleviates lung damage in hDPP4-transgenic mice infected with MERS-CoV
Functional Relevance of the Anaphylatoxin Receptor C3aR for Platelet Function and Arterial Thrombus Formation Marks an Intersection Point Between Innate Immunity and Thrombosis
The Human Platelet as an Innate Immune Cell: Interactions Between Activated Platelets and the Complement System
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.
Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia
Does Complement-Mediated Hemostatic Disturbance Occur in Traumatic Brain Injury? A Literature Review and Observational Study Protocol
Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.
Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study.
Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: A report of five cases.
COVID-19 infection in patients on anti-complement therapy: The Leeds National Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria service experience
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and COVID-19: an overlooked female patient population at potentially higher risk during the COVID-19 pandemic
Complement Activation in the Disease Course of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Its Effects on Clinical Outcomes.
The triggering of post-COVID-19 autoimmunity phenomena could be associated with both transient immunosuppression and an inappropriate form of immune reconstitution in susceptible individuals
Understanding COVID-19 Pandemic: Molecular Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Strategies. An Evidence-Based Review
Emerging Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Potential Therapeutic Targets.
Inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19 pathophysiology: proteinase-activated and purinergic receptors as drivers and candidate therapeutic targets.
COVID-19: imbalance of multiple systems during infection and importance of therapeutic choice and dosing of cardiac and anti-coagulant therapies.
Development of sacral/buttock retiform purpura as an ominous presenting sign of COVID-19 and clinical and histopathologic evolution during severe disease course.
ACE2 Down-Regulation May Act as a Transient Molecular Disease Causing RAAS Dysregulation and Tissue Damage in the Microcirculatory Environment Among COVID-19 Patients.
Phytochemicals as Potential Therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2-Induced Cardiovascular Complications: Thrombosis and Platelet Perspective.
COVID-19 Sepsis: Pathogenesis and Endothelial Molecular Mechanisms Based on "Two-Path Unifying Theory" of Hemostasis and Endotheliopathy-Associated Vascular Microthrombotic Disease, and Proposed Therapeutic Approach with Antimicrothrombotic Therapy.
Elevated Expression Levels of Lung Complement Anaphylatoxin, Neutrophil Chemoattractant Chemokine IL-8, and RANTES in MERS-CoV-Infected Patients: Predictive Biomarkers for Disease Severity and Mortality.
Bioactive Molecules Derived from Snake Venoms with Therapeutic Potential for the Treatment of Thrombo-Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with COVID-19.
Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways
Coagulation is the process by which a blood clot is formed. This process includes both the formation of a platelet plug as well as a cascade of clotting factors resulting in the formation of fibrin strands. Find the latest research on coagulation signaling pathways here.
Blood Clotting Disorders
Thrombophilia includes conditions with increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Blood clotting occurs when the body has insufficient amounts of specialized proteins that make blood clot and stop bleeding. Here is the latest research on blood clotting disorders.