Dec 5, 2018

Is One Sample Enough? β-Lactam Target Attainment and Penetration into Epithelial Lining Fluid Based on Multiple Bronchoalveolar Lavage Sampling Time Points in a Swine Pneumonia Model

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ana MotosDavid P Nicolau

Abstract

Describing the disposition of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection is crucial to guide optimal dosing for investigational agents. For antibiotics in development for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung are frequently determined from a bronchoscopy at a single time point. The influence of profiles constructed from a single ELF concentration point for each subject has never been reported. This study compares the pharmacokinetics of two β-lactams, ceftolozane and piperacillin, among different ELF sampling approaches using simulated human regimens in a swine pneumonia model. Plasma and ELF concentration-time profiles were characterized in two-compartment models by the use of robustly sampled ELF concentrations and by the random selection of one or two ELF concentrations from each swine. A 5,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each model to define the ELF penetration, as described by the ratio of the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for ELF to the AUC for free drug in plasma (AUCELF/fAUCplasma) and the probability of target attainment (PTA). Given the intersubject variability of the ELF penetrations observed, differences between the m...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Treatment Protocols
Wolffian Tumor
Antibiotic throat preparations
Antifungal Antibiotics, Topical
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Antibiotics, Gynecological
Site
Pharmacologic Substance
Bronchoscopy

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