Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores

Methods in Molecular Biology
Adrianne N Edwards, Shonna M McBride

Abstract

The ability for the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium difficile to form a metabolically dormant spore is critical for the survival of this organism outside of the host. This spore form is resistant to a myriad of environmental stresses, including heat, desiccation, and exposure to disinfectants and antimicrobials. These intrinsic properties of spores allow C. difficile to survive long-term in an oxygenated environment, to be easily transmitted from host-to-host, and to persist within the host following antibiotic treatment. Because of the importance of the spore form to the C. difficile life cycle and treatment and prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), the isolation and purification of spores are necessary to study the mechanisms of sporulation and germination, investigate spore properties and resistances, and for use in animal models of CDI. Here we provide basic protocols, in vitro growth conditions, and additional considerations for purifying C. difficile spores for a variety of downstream applications.

Citations

Jan 20, 2018·Environmental Microbiology·Kathryn L NawrockiShonna M McBride
Jan 15, 2019·Brazilian Journal of Microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]·Carlos Augusto Oliveira JúniorFrancisco Carlos Faria Lobato
Dec 8, 2019·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Daniela Wetzel, Shonna M McBride
Feb 23, 2020·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Ana Raquel MaiaLoredana Baccigalupi
Aug 28, 2020·Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology·Alexander KhorutsMichael J Sadowsky
Aug 14, 2019·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·John I RobinsonJeffrey P Henderson
Dec 20, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Can Murat ÜnalMichael Steinert
Feb 23, 2020·Cell·Jonathan M StokesJames J Collins
Sep 23, 2020·Journal of Medicinal Chemistry·George A NaclerioHerman O Sintim
Nov 23, 2021·Journal of Bacteriology·Catherine E BishopAdam S Duerfeldt

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