Mar 23, 2012

It takes two to tango: IκBs, the multifunctional partners of NF-κB

Immunological Reviews
Michael HinzClaus Scheidereit

Abstract

The inhibitory IκB proteins have been discovered as fundamental regulators of the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). As a generally excepted model, stimulus-dependent destruction of inhibitory IκBs and processing of precursor molecules, both promoted by components of the signal integrating IκB kinase complex, are the key events for the release of various NF-κB/Rel dimers and subsequent transcriptional activation. Intense research of more than 20 years provides evidence that the extending family of IκBs act not simply as reversible inhibitors of NF-κB activation but rather as a complex regulatory module, which assures feedback regulation of the NF-κB system and either can inhibit or promote transcriptional activity in a stimulus-dependent manner. Thus, IκB and NF-κB/Rel family proteins establish a complex interrelationship that allows modulated NF-κB-dependent transcription, tailored to the physiological environment.

  • References204
  • Citations58

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Transcription, Genetic
ARNT gene
I-kappa B Proteins
Plasma Protein Binding Capacity
Dimer
Transcription Factor
Signal Transduction
Transcriptional Activation
Ig-EBP-1
MIA3 gene

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.