PMID: 7931934Aug 1, 1994Paper

Judging pain in newborns: facial and cry determinants

Journal of Pediatric Psychology
H D HadjistavropoulosC C Johnston


Explored the facial and cry characteristics that adults use when judging an infant's pain. Sixteen women viewed videotaped reactions of 36 newborns subjected to noninvasive thigh rubs and vitamin K injections in the course of routine care and rated discomfort. The group mean interrater reliability was high. Detailed descriptions of the infants' facial reactions and cry sounds permitted specification of the determinants of distress judgments. Several facial variables (a brow bulge, eyes squeezed shut, and deepened nasolabial fold constellation, and taut tongue) accounted for 49% of the variance in ratings of affective discomfort after controlling for ratings of discomfort during a noninvasive event. In a separate analysis not including facial activity, several cry variables (formant frequency, latency to cry) also accounted for variance (38%) in ratings. When the facial and cry variables were considered together, cry variables added little to the prediction of ratings in comparison to facial variables. Cry would seem to command attention, but facial activity, rather than cry, can account for the major variations in adults' judgments of neonatal pain.


Sep 21, 2001·Indian Journal of Pediatrics·M Yaster, D G Nichols
Dec 28, 2007·Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders·Rosemary L MessmerKenneth D Craig
Jun 1, 2002·Behaviour Research and Therapy·T Hadjistavropoulos, K D Craig
Dec 31, 1997·Journal of Advanced Nursing·H H Abu-Saad, J P Hamers
Nov 1, 1996·Archives of Disease in Childhood·I S James-RobertsK Wilsher
Aug 14, 2010·International Journal of Pediatrics·Rasha SroujiSuzan Schneeweiss
Jan 1, 2008·Journal of Perinatology : Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association·P HummelM G Weiss
Oct 2, 2002·Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : JOGNN·Denise HarrisonPeter Loughnan
Oct 4, 2006·Developmental Psychobiology·Hadar ArditiArthur I Eidelman
Apr 2, 2016·Neurodegenerative Disease Management·Joukje M OostermanMiriam Kunz
Feb 20, 1998·Pain·H D HadjistavropoulosM F Whitfield
Jan 13, 2004·Pain·Kathleen S DeyoSusan R Mercer
Sep 17, 1999·São Paulo Medical Journal = Revista Paulista De Medicina·A L PereiraB I Kopelman
Nov 6, 2003·The Clinical Journal of Pain·Jeroen W B PetersHugo J Duivenvoorden
Jun 15, 2007·Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : JDBP·Nathalie GoubetJennifer Chesney
Sep 1, 1996·The Clinical Journal of Pain·K D CraigC A Gilbert
Oct 11, 2019·Health Technology Assessment : HTA·Ian St James-RobertsNishal Bhupendra Jaicim
May 9, 2014·The Clinical Journal of Pain·Julie ChangKenneth D Craig
Jan 1, 2012·The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry·Amit A JainAutar Krishen Munshi
Jul 2, 2020·Infant Behavior & Development·Vanessa AndréAlban Lemasson
Nov 20, 1998·Seminars in Perinatology·H H Abu-SaadJ P Hamers

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