PMID: 6122057Apr 10, 1982Paper

Ketoconazole versus nystatin plus amphotericin B for fungal prophylaxis in severely immunocompromised patients

Lancet
I M HannA V Hoffbrand

Abstract

72 patients severely immunocompromised by their underlying disease (marrow aplasia, acute leukaemia, or solid tumour) or by the treatment they were receiving, or both, were randomised to receive antifungal prophylaxis with either oral ketoconazole or conventional doses of oral amphotericin B and nystatin. All patients also had gut decontamination with non-absorbable antibiotics, skin antisepsis, sterile food, and oral cotrimoxazole. Protection against fungal infection was significantly superior with ketaconazole. When patients who had received allogeneic bone-marrow transplant were studied separately, there was no significant difference between the two treatments, probably because there was a fall-off in ketoconazole absorption from the end of the third week after the transplant. However, ketoconazole greatly reduced the likelihood of fungal infection in non-transplant patients.

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