PMID: 10634967Jan 15, 2000Paper

Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes

Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lori M Laffel


Ketone bodies are produced by the liver and used peripherally as an energy source when glucose is not readily available. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), while acetone is the third, and least abundant, ketone body. Ketones are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. They are also found in the blood of neonates and pregnant women. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), high levels of ketones are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counterregulatory hormones. In acute DKA, the ketone body ratio (3HB:AcAc) rises from normal (1:1) to as high as 10:1. In response to insulin therapy, 3HB levels commonly decrease long before AcAc levels. The frequently employed nitroprusside test only detects AcAc in blood and urine. This test is inconvenient, does not assess the best indicator of ketone body levels (3HB), provides only a semiquantitative assessment of ketone levels and is associated with false-positive results. Recently, inexpensive quantitative tests of 3HB levels have become available for use with small blood samples (5-25 microl). These...Continue Reading


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Aug 11, 2018·Medicine·Xiuli SongXiaohong Ma
Jul 28, 2019·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·Matthew Sherrier, Hongshuai Li
Jul 22, 2020·Current Sports Medicine Reports·Angela M PoffBrendan Egan
Apr 9, 2020·Emergency Medicine Australasia : EMA·Adam Morton
Jul 16, 2020·Journal of the Endocrine Society·Kim J ShimyDavid S Ludwig
Oct 22, 2002·American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism·Pamela M J O'ConnorTeresa A Davis
Oct 11, 2005·Critical Care Medicine·Mary Anne Carroll, Edward R Yeomans
Feb 12, 2017·Journal of Endocrinological Investigation·S Vigili de Kreutzenberg, A Avogaro
Jun 23, 2018·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Xinjian LiZhimin Lu
Jul 1, 2012·Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism·Ildiko H Koves, Catherine Pihoker
Jan 18, 2020·Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity·Roberto ArrigaDavide Lauro
May 9, 2020·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Younghee AhnTimothy E Shutt
Feb 12, 2020·Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism·Ali Khani JeihooniMilad Rahbar
Jun 17, 2020·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·Jovana MijatovicJennie C Brand-Miller
Mar 24, 2020·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·Nicole VogelzangsDiogenes consortium
Oct 20, 2020·Endocrine Research·Esben Stistrup LauritzenMette Bjerre
Oct 22, 2020·Obesity Science & Practice·Alice A GibsonAmanda Sainsbury
Oct 22, 2020·Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere·Fabian SchrammDorothee Dahlem
Nov 25, 2020·Current Diabetes Reports·Preethika EkanayakeSunder Mudaliar
Nov 29, 2020·Postgraduate Medical Journal·Bilal BashirMoulinath Banerjee
Dec 4, 2020·Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity : Targets and Therapy·Meichen QianAbdulrahman Al-Mureish
May 11, 2005·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Patrick F Finn, J Fred Dice
Jul 8, 2019·Molecular Genetics and Metabolism·Willemijn J van RijtM R Heiner-Fokkema
Nov 20, 2020·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·Brianna J StubbsJohn C Newman
May 30, 2020·Cell·Kévin ContrepoisMichael P Snyder
Jan 20, 2021·The Journal of Physiological Sciences : JPS·Irfannuddin IrfannuddinNoriyuki Koibuchi
Dec 29, 2020·Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports·M Bagherzadeh-YazdiN Sheibani
Oct 6, 2020·Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD·Olivia McCarthyRichard M Bracken
Dec 16, 2020·JCI Insight·Gladys FerrereLaurence Zitvogel
Dec 22, 2019·Biochimie·Raymond S Ochs, Tanaji T Talele
Jan 2, 2021·World Journal of Diabetes·Souad NasserLuciano Pirola
Nov 17, 2020·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Daniel C Shippy, Tyler K Ulland
Jan 23, 2021·Biosensors·Omar Alkedeh, Ronny Priefer
Jan 1, 2021·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Thomas Ho-Yin Lee, Suk-Yu Yau
Jan 3, 2021·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·Ting ChenQianming Chen
Feb 23, 2021·International Journal of Toxicology·Brianna J StubbsJohn C Newman
Apr 29, 2020·Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine·Claire GinnJoanne Martin
Mar 15, 2020·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Nicola PigaianiFranco Tagliaro
Sep 3, 2020·Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association·Safak MertKorkut Uygun
Jan 12, 2020·Communications Biology·Heiko T JansenJoanna L Kelley
Feb 24, 2021·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·Brianna J StubbsJohn C Newman
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Jan 15, 2019·European Journal of Pharmacology·Katherine Donnan, Lakshman Segar
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Mar 12, 2021·Cardiovascular Research·Shingo TakaharaJason R B Dyck
Mar 21, 2021·Clinical Nutrition : Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition·Vladimir VidićDušan Ugarković
Mar 22, 2021·Clinical Nutrition ESPEN·Bhuwaneswaran VijayamAsnida Abdul Wahab
Sep 14, 2020·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids·Gary D LopaschukEzra B Ketema
Apr 4, 2021·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Isabella GiganteMaria Notarnicola
Nov 25, 2019·Hormones and Behavior·Mackenzie L BergstromLinda M Fedigan
Apr 10, 2021·Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology·Utku DevamogluOzlem Yesil-Celiktas
Apr 9, 2021·Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology·Shridhara AlvaJunli Ou
May 3, 2021·Clinical Nutrition : Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition·Mathias D G Van den EyndeCasper G Schalkwijk
May 3, 2021·Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome·Jagat Jyoti MukherjeeSanjay Chatterjee

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