Translation initiation is a crucial step of protein synthesis which largely defines how the composition of the cellular transcriptome is converted to the proteome and controls the response and adaptation to environmental stimuli. The efficiency of translation of individual mRNAs, and hence the basal shape of the proteome, is defined by the structures of the mRNA translation initiation regions. Initiation efficiency can be regulated by small molecules, proteins, or antisense RNAs, underscoring its importance in translational control. Although initiation has been studied in bacteria for decades, many aspects remain poorly understood. Recent evidence has suggested an unexpected diversity of pathways by which mRNAs can be recruited to the bacterial ribosome, the importance of structural dynamics of initiation intermediates, and the complexity of checkpoints for mRNA selection. In this review, we discuss how the ribosome shapes the landscape of translation initiation by non-linear kinetic processing of the transcriptome information. We summarize the major pathways by which mRNAs enter the ribosome depending on the structure of their 5' untranslated regions, the assembly and the structure of initiation intermediates, the individual a...Continue Reading
Initial rate kinetic analysis of the mechanism of initiation complex formation and the role of initiation factor IF-3
Ribosomal subunit interaction as studied by light scattering. Evidence of different classes of ribosome preparations
Programmed translational frameshifting and initiation at an AUU codon in gene expression of bacterial insertion sequence IS911
Domains of initiator tRNA and initiation codon crucial for initiator tRNA selection by Escherichia coli IF3
The anti-Shine-Dalgarno region in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA is not essential for the correct selection of translational starts
A single base change in the Shine-Dalgarno region of 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli affects translation of many proteins
Specialized ribosome system: preferential translation of a single mRNA species by a subpopulation of mutated ribosomes in Escherichia coli
Mutation at position 791 in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA affects processes involved in the initiation of protein synthesis
Alternative occupancy of a dual ribosomal binding site by mRNA affected by translation initiation factors
Mechanism of translational initiation in prokaryotes. Evidence for a direct effect of IF2 on the activity of the 30 S ribosomal subunit
Escherichia coli formylmethionine tRNA: mutations in GGGCCC sequence conserved in anticodon stem of initiator tRNAs affect initiation of protein synthesis and conformation of anticodon loop
Effect of Escherichia coli initiation factors on the kinetics of N-Acphe-tRNAPhe binding to 30S ribosomal subunits. A fluorescence stopped-flow study
Solution structure of the ribosome-binding domain of E. coli translation initiation factor IF3. Homology with the U1A protein of the eukaryotic spliceosome
High-affinity RNA ligands to Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal protein S1: comparison of natural and unnatural binding sites
Translation of mRNAs with degenerate initiation triplet AUU displays high initiation factor 2 dependence and is subject to initiation factor 3 repression
Decoding fidelity at the ribosomal A and P sites: influence of mutations in three different regions of the decoding domain in 16S rRNA
The structure of the translational initiation factor IF1 from E.coli contains an oligomer-binding motif
An AUG initiation codon, not codon-anticodon complementarity, is required for the translation of unleadered mRNA in Escherichia coli
Ribosomal protein S1 is required for translation of most, if not all, natural mRNAs in Escherichia coli in vivo
A six-domain structural model for Escherichia coli translation initiation factor IF2. Characterisation of twelve surface epitopes
Identification of the ribosome binding sites of translation initiation factor IF3 by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy
Characterization of the domains of E. coli initiation factor IF2 responsible for recognition of the ribosome
Two different and highly organized mechanisms of translation initiation in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus
Selective stimulation of translation of leaderless mRNA by initiation factor 2: evolutionary implications for translation
X-Ray structures of the universal translation initiation factor IF2/eIF5B: conformational changes on GDP and GTP binding
Expression of the Escherichia coli pcnB gene is translationally limited using an inefficient start codon: a second chromosomal example of translation initiated at AUU
Effects of ribosomal proteins S1, S2 and the DeaD/CsdA DEAD-box helicase on translation of leaderless and canonical mRNAs in Escherichia coli
Global analysis of mRNA decay and abundance in Escherichia coli at single-gene resolution using two-color fluorescent DNA microarrays
Correlations between Shine-Dalgarno sequences and gene features such as predicted expression levels and operon structures
Analyzing and enhancing mRNA translational efficiency in an Escherichia coli in vitro expression system
Solution structure of the C1-subdomain of Bacillus stearothermophilus translation initiation factor IF2
Conformational transition of initiation factor 2 from the GTP- to GDP-bound state visualized on the ribosome
Analysis of SD sequences in completed microbial genomes: non-SD-led genes are as common as SD-led genes
How initiation factors maximize the accuracy of tRNA selection in initiation of bacterial protein synthesis
The highly efficient translation initiation region from the Escherichia coli rpsA gene lacks a shine-dalgarno element
Translation initiation factor IF2 interacts with the 30 S ribosomal subunit via two separate binding sites
The nucleotide-binding site of bacterial translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) as a metabolic sensor
The translational fidelity function of IF3 during transition from the 30 S initiation complex to the 70 S initiation complex
Requirements for translation re-initiation in Escherichia coli: roles of initiator tRNA and initiation factors IF2 and IF3
Ribosome collisions and translation efficiency: optimization by codon usage and mRNA destabilization
A single mutation in the IF3 N-terminal domain perturbs the fidelity of translation initiation at three levels
Control of translation initiation involves a factor-induced rearrangement of helix 44 of 16S ribosomal RNA
An unexpected type of ribosomes induced by kasugamycin: a look into ancestral times of protein synthesis?
Thermodynamics of GTP and GDP binding to bacterial initiation factor 2 suggests two types of structural transitions
Proteomics-based refinement of Deinococcus deserti genome annotation reveals an unwonted use of non-canonical translation initiation codons.
Translation initiation region dependency of translation initiation in Escherichia coli by IF1 and kasugamycin
Thermodynamic characterization of ppGpp binding to EF-G or IF2 and of initiator tRNA binding to free IF2 in the presence of GDP, GTP, or ppGpp
Proximity of the start codon to a leaderless mRNA's 5' terminus is a strong positive determinant of ribosome binding and expression in Escherichia coli
Leaderless genes in bacteria: clue to the evolution of translation initiation mechanisms in prokaryotes
Mutations in 16S rRNA that suppress cold-sensitive initiation factor 1 affect ribosomal subunit association
Selective translation of leaderless mRNAs by specialized ribosomes generated by MazF in Escherichia coli
Bacterial ribosome requires multiple L12 dimers for efficient initiation and elongation of protein synthesis involving IF2 and EF-G
Quantitative assessment of Ras over-expression via shotgun deployment of vectors utilizing synthetic promoters
Bimolecular integrin-ligand interactions quantified using peptide-functionalized dextran-coated microparticles
Platelet m-calpain: a facile marker and STR polymorphism analysis for the identification of true carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation
Unique role for translation initiation factor 3 in the light color regulation of photosynthetic gene expression
70S-scanning initiation is a novel and frequent initiation mode of ribosomal translation in bacteria
Two promising future developments of cryo-EM: capturing short-lived states and mapping a continuum of states of a macromolecule
Ribosomal initiation complex-driven changes in the stability and dynamics of initiation factor 2 regulate the fidelity of translation initiation
smFRET studies of the 'encounter' complexes and subsequent intermediate states that regulate the selectivity of ligand binding
Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus phages: effect of translation initiation efficiency on differential codon adaptation mediated by virulent and temperate lifestyles
A bacterial homolog YciH of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF1 regulates stress-related gene expression and is unlikely to be involved in translation initiation fidelity
Structural insight into the recognition of amino-acylated initiator tRNA by eIF5B in the 80S initiation complex
The emerging role of rectified thermal fluctuations in initiator aa-tRNA- and start codon selection during translation initiation
A model for the interaction of the G3-subdomain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus IF2 with the 30S ribosomal subunit
Unstructured 5'-tails act through ribosome standby to override inhibitory structure at ribosome binding sites
The evolutionary and functional diversity of classical and lesser-known cytoplasmic and organellar translational GTPases across the tree of life
Bacterial replication, transcription and translation: mechanistic insights from single-molecule biochemical studies
The ribosomal protein S1-dependent standby site in tisB mRNA consists of a single-stranded region and a 5' structure element
Increased production of periplasmic proteins in Escherichia coli by directed evolution of the translation initiation region
Translational Control by Ribosome Pausing in Bacteria: How a Non-uniform Pace of Translation Affects Protein Production and Folding.
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