L-Arabinose binding, isomerization, and epimerization by D-xylose isomerase: X-ray/neutron crystallographic and molecular simulation study

Structure
Paul LanganAndrey Kovalevsky

Abstract

D-xylose isomerase (XI) is capable of sugar isomerization and slow conversion of some monosaccharides into their C2-epimers. We present X-ray and neutron crystallographic studies to locate H and D atoms during the respective isomerization and epimerization of L-arabinose to L-ribulose and L-ribose, respectively. Neutron structures in complex with cyclic and linear L-arabinose have demonstrated that the mechanism of ring-opening is the same as for the reaction with D-xylose. Structural evidence and QM/MM calculations show that in the reactive Michaelis complex L-arabinose is distorted to the high-energy (5)S1 conformation; this may explain the apparent high KM for this sugar. MD-FEP simulations indicate that amino acid substitutions in a hydrophobic pocket near C5 of L-arabinose can enhance sugar binding. L-ribulose and L-ribose were found in furanose forms when bound to XI. We propose that these complexes containing Ni(2+) cofactors are Michaelis-like and the isomerization between these two sugars proceeds via a cis-ene-diol mechanism.

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Related Concepts

Glucose isomerase
Arabinose
Bacterial Proteins
Cadmium
Magnesium
Plasma Protein Binding Capacity
Molecular Stereochemistry
Streptomyces
Thermodynamics
Crystallography, X-Ray

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