Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial gastroenteritis

Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Romney M Humphries, Andrea J Linscott

Abstract

Bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease that is pervasive in both the developing and developed worlds. While for the most part bacterial gastroenteritis is self-limiting, identification of an etiological agent by bacterial stool culture is required for the management of patients with severe or prolonged diarrhea, symptoms consistent with invasive disease, or a history that may predict a complicated course of disease. Importantly, characterization of bacterial enteropathogens from stool cultures in clinical laboratories is one of the primary means by which public health officials identify and track outbreaks of bacterial gastroenteritis. This article provides guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories that perform stool cultures. The general characteristics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of key bacterial enteropathogens are summarized. Information regarding optimal specimen collection, transport, and processing and current diagnostic tests and testing algorithms is provided. This article is an update of Cumitech 12A (P. H. Gilligan, J. M. Janda, M. A. Karmali, and J. M. Miller, Cumitech 12A, Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial diarrhea, 1992).

References

Apr 1, 1978·The Journal of Hygiene·Teizo TsukamotoR Sakazaki
Mar 1, 1976·Forensic Science·F Takabe, M Oya
Sep 1, 1975·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·L Barth Reller, S Mirrett
Sep 1, 1975·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·G M EdererS Mirrett
Sep 1, 1992·Journal of Clinical Pathology·R A BowmanThomas V Riley
Dec 1, 1992·Infection and Immunity·M J AlbertJ Montanaro
Oct 1, 1990·The Journal of Applied Bacteriology·U RönnerA Henriksson
Feb 16, 1990·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·D L SiegelI Nachamkin
Sep 1, 1990·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·J C DesenclosK C Klontz
Jan 1, 1990·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·C L Hatheway
Jul 8, 1989·BMJ : British Medical Journal·M S AlexanderJ P Lavender
Sep 1, 1989·Microbial Pathogenesis·J MinamiH Hayashi
Jun 1, 1989·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·R R Wittler, J W Bass
Apr 1, 1989·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Albert J LastovicaJ L Penner
May 1, 1989·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·K C Kain, M T Kelly
Dec 1, 1985·Journal of Medical Microbiology·S P BorrielloK Sullens
Feb 1, 1989·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·S JohnsonDale N Gerding
Jul 12, 1985·Science·M J Betley, J J Mekalanos
Jan 1, 1988·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·S SirinavinT Layangkul
Nov 1, 1986·Annals of Internal Medicine·S D HolmbergJ J Farmer
Jan 1, 1987·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·H J Adkins, L T Santiago
Dec 1, 1985·The Journal of Hygiene·P C Turnbull, J M Kramer
May 31, 1973·The New England Journal of Medicine·M M LevineR B Hornick
Oct 1, 1969·American Journal of Epidemiology·C E CherubinJ W Winter
Jan 1, 1971·Pathologia et microbiologia·J BockemühlF Burkhardt
Mar 11, 1971·The New England Journal of Medicine·J C Breckinridge, M S Bergdoll
Aug 23, 1980·Lancet·J P KoplanM L Rosenberg
Jan 1, 1983·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·C E StagerJ R Davis
Oct 1, 1983·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·W L WangM J Blaser
Nov 1, 1982·Reviews of Infectious Diseases·M J Blaser, L S Newman
Apr 1, 1981·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·J G Wells, G K Morris
Jan 1, 1983·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·J VandepitteL de Swert
May 1, 1980·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·J E ClarridgeR J Wallace
Nov 23, 1995·The New England Journal of Medicine·J H ReesR A Hughes
Jan 1, 1995·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·H RautelinV Valtonen
Aug 1, 1995·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·C J PapasianB Garrison
Nov 1, 1995·Annals of Internal Medicine·C Su, L J Brandt
May 1, 1994·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·M S IslamM J Albert
Mar 1, 1994·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·R GruenewaldJ Chan
Jan 27, 1994·The New England Journal of Medicine·Ciaran P KellyJ T LaMont
Sep 1, 1993·Journal of the American Geriatrics Society·K J WalkerD R Guay
Oct 1, 1993·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·J Michael Janda, Sharon L Abbott
Aug 1, 1993·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·K FanL Barth Reller
Aug 1, 1996·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·V ThamlikitkulC Chareandee
Jul 1, 1996·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·A J MorrisL Barth Reller
Apr 1, 1996·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·S W ChoiRichard L Guerrant
Dec 1, 1996·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·J Hines, I Nachamkin
Nov 1, 1996·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·S Gras-RouzetJ L Avril
Apr 17, 1997·The New England Journal of Medicine·H MahlerS Krähenbühl
Dec 6, 1997·Archives of Disease in Childhood·D SanyalR Roberts
Apr 2, 1998·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Mark H WilcoxA Davidson
Jul 17, 1998·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·I NachamkinT Ho
Oct 10, 1998·Research in Microbiology·M Y PopoffF W Hickman-Brenner
May 24, 2000·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·N A DanielsL Slutsker
May 29, 2000·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Z ShimoniM Weinberger
Jun 2, 2000·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Frédéric BarbutJ C Petit
Oct 4, 2000·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·R TolcinGary W Procop
Oct 24, 2000·International Journal of Medical Microbiology : IJMM·H NeubauerH Meyer
Feb 15, 2001·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Richard L GuerrantInfectious Diseases Society of America
Feb 24, 2001·Research in Microbiology·M Y PopoffF W Brenner
Apr 3, 2001·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·B M Allos
Jun 8, 2001·Hepatology : Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases·T Patel
Sep 28, 2001·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·T MurataTakeshi Honda
Oct 10, 2001·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Frédéric Barbut, J C Petit
May 17, 2002·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Jaime A LabarcaLaurene Mascola
Nov 29, 2002·The New England Journal of Medicine·Christopher M ParryJeremy J Farrar
Jun 17, 2003·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Geert HuysJean Swings
Jul 23, 2003·Environmental Microbiology·G B JensenJacques Mahillon
Nov 1, 1953·The American Journal of the Medical Sciences·R AUSTRIAN, R ROSENBLUM
May 5, 1960·The New England Journal of Medicine·P H BLACKM N SWARTZ
Mar 1, 1963·Bacteriological Reviews·R E WILLIAMS
Jul 1, 1964·Journal of Bacteriology·S G CARY, E B BLAIR
Oct 9, 2003·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Sharon L AbbottJ Michael Janda
Nov 12, 2003·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Clifford G ClarkAndrea Ellis
Nov 18, 2003·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·A DedisteJ-P Butzler
Dec 3, 2003·American Journal of Infection Control·L Margolin, D Engelhard
Dec 10, 2003·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Caroline M O'HaraNancy A Strockbine
Jan 24, 2004·Lancet·David A SackA K Siddique
Mar 16, 2004·Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association·Laurent BeaugerieInfectious Colitis Study Group
Jun 10, 2004·Journal of Applied Microbiology·T ClavelP Schmitt
Sep 18, 2004·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·J-P Butzler
Nov 2, 2004·Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology·J G SmedleyB A McClane
Nov 13, 2004·Molecular Nutrition & Food Research·Monika Ehling-SchulzSiegfried Scherer
Mar 4, 2005·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·A Pratt, V Korolik
Mar 16, 2005·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·Ingo StockBernd Wiedemann
Mar 18, 2005·International Journal of Colorectal Disease·Juan J Engel, Thomas L Martin
Mar 23, 2005·Lancet·Phillip I TarrWayne L Chandler
Apr 13, 2005·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Say Tat Ooi, Bennett Lorber
Apr 23, 2005·Veterinary Research·John E MoorePaul Whyte
Jul 6, 2005·The Journal of Infection·Chung-Hsu LaiCheng-Yi Liu
Aug 6, 2005·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Katelijne DierickJacques Mahillon
Aug 19, 2005·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Walter F SchlechDavid J M Haldane
Sep 10, 2005·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·G Douglas InglisJohn P Kastelic
Sep 30, 2005·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Myonsun YohTakeshi Honda
Jan 24, 2006·Research in Microbiology·Ya-Hui HuangDavid J Clarke
Jun 1, 2006·The American Journal of Medicine·David L Paterson
Sep 14, 2006·PLoS Medicine·Philippe J Sansonetti
Nov 23, 2006·Annals of Internal Medicine·John G Bartlett
Dec 8, 2006·The New England Journal of Medicine·Christoph HögenauerThomas Hinterleitner
Jan 16, 2007·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Gopinath Balakrish NairDavid A Sack
Feb 13, 2007·Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease·Fiona J Cooke, John Wain
Feb 16, 2007·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·M J FiguerasJosep Guarro
Feb 20, 2007·International Journal of Food Microbiology·A KérouantonM L De Buyser
Mar 16, 2007·Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism·Janet E PopeJanine M Ouimet
May 8, 2007·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Shannon D ManningJames T Rudrik
Sep 21, 2007·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Michelle M RiggsC J Donskey
Dec 19, 2007·Pediatric Transplantation·John David SpencerBettina H Ault
Feb 7, 2008·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Robert C OwensCarlene A Muto
Feb 5, 2008·Journal of Bacteriology·Joseph A Sorg, Abraham L Sonenshein
Feb 19, 2008·Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology·Loren BermanKurt E Roberts
Feb 22, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Thomas AkerlundLars G Burman
Mar 8, 2008·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Y T H P van DuynhovenAnna M D Kooistra-Smid
Apr 22, 2008·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Lotte P Stenfors ArnesenPer Einar Granum
May 9, 2008·FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology·Douglas A Drevets, Michael S Bronze
May 9, 2008·Current Infectious Disease Reports·John Holton
Jun 4, 2008·American Journal of Surgery·Jason F Hall, David Berger
Jun 24, 2008·International Journal of Epidemiology·William CheckleyChildhood Malnutrition and Infection Network
Jun 26, 2008·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·H ZhengB Jiang
Jul 17, 2008·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·Gary W ProcopL Barth Reller
Aug 6, 2008·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Cynthia L SearsFirdausi Qadri
Aug 30, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Robert S MillerAlbert J Lastovica
Sep 12, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Elisabeth AichingerRobin Patel
Sep 24, 2008·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Ines Zollner-SchwetzRobert Krause
Oct 3, 2008·Pediatrics·Larry K PickeringCommittee on Infectious Diseases
Oct 18, 2008·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·T ChitovK Sontikun
Oct 28, 2008·Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing : DCCN·Megan M Earhart
Dec 18, 2008·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Atsutoshi TsujiHidemasa Izumiya
Mar 5, 2009·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology·Christine Schlenker, Christina M Surawicz
Apr 16, 2009·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Cynthia L Sears
May 26, 2009·Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association·Jeffrey CloudCiaran P Kelly
Jul 14, 2009·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Susan C MorpethJohn A Crump
Aug 27, 2009·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Michael F LynchEric Mintz
Jan 1, 2008·Journal of Infection in Developing Countries·Khalifa Sifaw GhengheshJohn Klena
Oct 16, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Herbert L DuPont
Nov 6, 2009·Epidemiology and Infection·D Schönberg-NorioH Rautelin
Dec 17, 2009·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·F Allerberger, M Wagner
Dec 25, 2009·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Christelle GuilletMarc Lecuit
Jan 13, 2010·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·J Michael Janda, Sharon L Abbott
Jan 15, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Susan M Novak-WeekleyAlice Weissfeld
Feb 18, 2010·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Shannon E MajowiczInternational Collaboration on Enteric Disease 'Burden of Illness' Studies
Mar 12, 2010·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·A Alperi, M J Figueras
Mar 24, 2010·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Stuart H CohenInfectious Diseases Society of America
Apr 9, 2010·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Edward J Bottone
Aug 3, 2010·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Delphine MartinyOlivier Vandenberg
Aug 11, 2010·Pediatrics·Casey Barton BehraveshSalmonella Schwarzengrund Outbreak Investigation Team
Aug 11, 2010·Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases·Elizabeth C Wick, Cynthia L Sears
Aug 28, 2010·Journal of Medical Microbiology·C FarinaS Bordoni
Sep 17, 2010·Nature·Sarah A KuehneNigel P Minton
Sep 24, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Richard F de BoerAnna M D Kooistra-Smid
Dec 9, 2010·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Etinosa O Igbinosa, Anthony I Okoh
Dec 24, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Christina R HermosAlexander J McAdam
Jan 5, 2011·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Elaine ScallanPatricia M Griffin
Jan 11, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·John A CrumpVenance P Maro
Jan 11, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Myron M Levine, Tamer H Farag
Mar 2, 2011·Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde·H NimmervollS Albini
Mar 8, 2011·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·E BessèdeF Mégraud
Apr 13, 2011·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·R EddabraJoni Scheftel
May 10, 2011·Journal of Bacteriology·N Gonzalez-EscalonaA Depaola
May 19, 2011·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Angela L MyersRangaraj Selvarangan
Jun 3, 2011·The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Amal RahoumaKhalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
Jun 4, 2011·Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association·A DeshpandeDavid D K Rolston
Jun 24, 2011·The New England Journal of Medicine·Christina FrankHUS Investigation Team
Jul 29, 2011·The New England Journal of Medicine·Holger RohdeRuifu Yang
Oct 21, 2011·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·María NaranjoKatelijne Dierick
Nov 11, 2011·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·M Fredriksson-AhomaaR Stephan
Dec 14, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Véronique GouletJean-Claude Desenclos
Dec 17, 2011·Environmental Health Insights·Jennifer N SimsHari H P Cohly
Jan 17, 2012·Medicina intensiva·B BorgattaJ Rello
Jan 24, 2012·BMC Public Health·Hassan VallyPatricia Desmarchelier
Feb 7, 2012·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Juan C EscobarJoseph Eisenberg
Feb 16, 2012·Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology·Sahil KhannaLarry M Baddour
Mar 2, 2012·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Tadasuke OokaTetsuya Hayashi
Mar 2, 2012·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Timothy F Jones, Peter Gerner-Smidt
Mar 21, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Craig S WongPhillip I Tarr
Mar 31, 2012·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Mohammad AliJohn Clemens
Apr 11, 2012·Journal of Food Protection·Meagan K KayAnthony A Marfin
May 2, 2012·The Journal of Infection·Mei QuQuanyi Wang
May 18, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Kanyin L OngBarbara E Mahon
May 18, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Anna NewtonBarbara E Mahon
May 18, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Rebecca L HallBarbara L Herwaldt
May 18, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Elizabeth AilesChristine L Moe
May 15, 2012·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Thomas Butler
May 16, 2012·International Journal of Food Microbiology·Yukiko Hara-KudoSusumu Kumagai
May 26, 2012·Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases·Takayuki KonnoShioko Saito
Jun 16, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Donna M DennoEileen J Klein
Jun 22, 2012·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Karissa CulbreathPeter H Gilligan
Jul 4, 2012·Lancet·Jason B HarrisStephen B Calderwood
Jul 13, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Mark H WilcoxMike W Wren
Aug 31, 2012·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Jari J HirvonenSuvi-Sirkku Kaukoranta
Sep 14, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Seth T WalkDavid M Aronoff
Sep 22, 2012·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·Chi-Jung WuWen-Chien Ko
Oct 12, 2012·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Jane W MarshLee H Harrison
Oct 23, 2012·Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition·Christa L Fischer WalkerRobert E Black
Oct 25, 2012·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Goutam ChowdhuryThandavarayan Ramamurthy
Nov 3, 2012·PloS One·Christa L Fischer WalkerRobert E Black
Nov 24, 2012·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Carmen L GiltnerRomney M Humphries
Dec 25, 2012·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Tadasuke OokaTetsuya Hayashi
Jan 12, 2013·BMC Infectious Diseases·Véronique GouletHenriette de Valk
Jan 22, 2013·Virulence·Michael J MahanDouglas M Heithoff
Jul 3, 2013·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Clifford G ClarkGarrett R Westmacott
Jul 12, 2013·Annals of Emergency Medicine·Daniel A del Portal, David J Karras
Aug 21, 2013·The Journal of Hospital Infection·D M GuerreroC J Donskey
Sep 27, 2013·The New England Journal of Medicine·David W EyreA Sarah Walker
Oct 5, 2013·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Matthew A CroxenB Brett Finlay
Oct 18, 2013·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·E WesselsE C J Claas
Dec 4, 2013·Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR·Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard

Citations

Apr 14, 2016·The American Journal of Gastroenterology·Mark RiddleBradley A Connor
Mar 3, 2017·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Ari KauppinenRuska Rimhanen-Finne
Sep 9, 2017·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Tuula PelkonenJuha Kirveskari
May 5, 2017·Microbiology Insights·Salla J KiiskinenAnja Siitonen
Oct 18, 2018·Maternal & Child Nutrition·Justin BartterRobyn Alders
Nov 9, 2018·Indian Journal of Gastroenterology : Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology·Ujjala Ghoshal, Nidhi Tejan
Nov 24, 2018·The Analyst·P RajapakshaJ Chapman
Nov 30, 2018·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Ohad Gal-Mor
Nov 7, 2018·The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Gayathri NatarajanChristine Marie George
Feb 5, 2019·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·Anne TilmanneDelphine Martiny
Dec 6, 2018·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Gillian A M TarrStephen B Freedman
Apr 28, 2016·Clinical Chemistry·Christopher Lowe, Mari L DeMarco
Apr 1, 2017·Expert Review of Proteomics·Ping JinEdouard C Nice
May 19, 2017·Journal of Travel Medicine·Jordi Vila
Feb 9, 2019·Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology·Davis GislinKathirvelu Baskar
Dec 6, 2018·The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses Et De La Microbiologie Médicale·Vivian PeiranoGustavo Varela
Jan 19, 2018·Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease·Margaret MokomaneDavid M Goldfarb
Sep 5, 2017·Frontiers in Microbiology·Christopher J GrimKaren G Jarvis
Oct 23, 2020·Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition·Gabriela Maia DanielskiRenata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo
Dec 1, 2020·Military Medicine·Seth M Grubb, Mark Riddle
Aug 4, 2019·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·Byron Michael BerengerLinda Chui
Dec 15, 2020·Advanced Therapeutics·Xinyue DongZhenjia Wang
Dec 18, 2020·Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety·Nodali NdrahaHsin-I Hsiao
Jan 23, 2020·Microorganisms·Christ-Donald Kaptchouang TchatchouangCollins Njie Ateba
Apr 24, 2020·Heliyon·Harriet U UgbokoJohn O Oyewale
Mar 9, 2021·Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology·Héctor Jesús Maldonado-GarzaSamantha Flores-Treviño
Aug 26, 2020·Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease·Sophie Alexandra BaronGrégory Dubourg
Apr 29, 2021·Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology·Ujjala GhoshalUday Chand Ghoshal
Mar 11, 2016·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·J Michael JandaChristopher J McIver

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Related Papers

Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
T J Kirn, M P Weinstein
Advance for Nurse Practitioners
M R Colyar
MMWR. Recommendations and Reports : Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
L Hannah GouldCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
M J Brian, Larry K Pickering
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved