The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP), in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact ("liking") and motivational incentive salience ("wanting") of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating vs. intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including "liking" and "wanting...Continue Reading
Gastric pathology and feeding deficits induced by hypothalamic damage in rats: effects of lesion type, size, and placement
Self-stimulation of the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of Tsai attenuated by microinjections of spiroperidol into the nucleus accumbens
The taste reactivity test. II. Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in chronic thalamic and chronic decerebrate rats
Two types of aphagia and two types of sensorimotor impairment after lateral hypothalamic lesions: observations in normal weight, dieted, and fattened rats
The role of dopamine in maintaining intracranial self-stimulation in the ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex
Lateral hypothalamic syndrome in rats: a comparison of the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lesions placed in the lateral hypothalamus and nigrostriatal bundle
Chronically reduced body weight in rats sustaining lesions of the lateral hypothalamus and maintained on palatable diets and drinking solutions
Neuroleptic-induced deficits in food and water regulation: similarities to the lateral hypothalamic syndrome
Prefrontal cortical efferents in the rat synapse on unlabeled neuronal targets of catecholamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens septi and on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area
Similar effect of raclopride and reduced sucrose concentration on the microstructure of sucrose sham feeding
Taste reactivity analysis of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced aphagia: implications for arousal and anhedonia hypotheses of dopamine function
Intraoral intake and taste reactivity responses elicited by sucrose and sodium chloride in chronic decerebrate rats
The relative attenuation of self-stimulation, eating and drinking produced by dopamine-receptor blockade
Contrasting effects of hypothalamic and nucleus accumbens septi self-stimulation on brain stem single unit activity and cortical arousal
Effects of (Des-Tyr1)-gamma-endorphin and alpha-endorphin as compared to haloperidol and amphetamine on nucleus accumbens self-stimulation
Relation of consummatory responses and preabsorptive insulin release to palatability and learned taste aversions
Lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala. I: Effects on taste reactivity, taste aversion learning and sodium appetite
Where does damage lead to enhanced food aversion: the ventral pallidum/substantia innominata or lateral hypothalamus?
Microinjections of phencyclidine (PCP) and related drugs into nucleus accumbens shell potentiate medial forebrain bundle brain stimulation reward
Neuronal responses in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during heroin self-administration in freely moving rats
Pimozide does not shift palatability: separation of anhedonia from sensorimotor suppression by taste reactivity
Expression of D1 receptor, D2 receptor, substance P and enkephalin messenger RNAs in the neurons projecting from the nucleus accumbens
Efferent projections of the nucleus accumbens in the rat with special reference to subdivision of the nucleus: biotinylated dextran amine study
Neuronal spike activity in the nucleus accumbens of behaving rats during ethanol self-administration
Measuring hedonic impact in animals and infants: microstructure of affective taste reactivity patterns
Enhanced intake of high-fat food following striatal mu-opioid stimulation: microinjection mapping and fos expression
The effect of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride on the pattern of licking microstructure induced by midazolam in the rat
Comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates
Wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing actions of hypocretin (orexin): basal forebrain sites of action
An examination of nucleus accumbens cell firing during extinction and reinstatement of water reinforcement behavior in rats
Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat
Glutamate motivational ensembles in nucleus accumbens: rostrocaudal shell gradients of fear and feeding
Overlapping distributions of orexin/hypocretin- and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in rat brain regions mediating arousal, motivation, and stress
The lateral hypothalamic syndrome: recovery of feeding and drinking after lateral hypothalamic lesions
Increases in food intake or food-seeking behavior induced by GABAergic, opioid, or dopaminergic stimulation of the nucleus accumbens: is it hunger?
Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task
Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues
Activation of a subpopulation of orexin/hypocretin-containing hypothalamic neurons by GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of the nucleus accumbens shell, but not by exposure to a novel environment
Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens
Nucleus accumbens neurons are innately tuned for rewarding and aversive taste stimuli, encode their predictors, and are linked to motor output
Activation of feeding-related neural circuitry after unilateral injections of muscimol into the nucleus accumbens shell
Comparison of melanin-concentrating hormone and hypocretin/orexin mRNA expression patterns in a new parceling scheme of the lateral hypothalamic zone
Effects of intra-nucleus accumbens shell administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behaviors in the rat
A proposed hypothalamic-thalamic-striatal axis for the integration of energy balance, arousal, and food reward
Hedonic hot spot in nucleus accumbens shell: where do mu-opioids cause increased hedonic impact of sweetness?
Simultaneous dopamine and single-unit recordings reveal accumbens GABAergic responses: implications for intracranial self-stimulation
Sensitization of salt appetite is associated with increased "wanting" but not "liking" of a salt reward in the sodium-deplete rat
Discrete neurochemical coding of distinguishable motivational processes: insights from nucleus accumbens control of feeding
D1 and D2 dopamine-receptor modulation of striatal glutamatergic signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons
Targeting Cre recombinase to specific neuron populations with bacterial artificial chromosome constructs
Emotional environments retune the valence of appetitive versus fearful functions in nucleus accumbens
Opposing patterns of signaling activation in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing striatal neurons in response to cocaine and haloperidol
Mesolimbic dopamine in desire and dread: enabling motivation to be generated by localized glutamate disruptions in nucleus accumbens
Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons
Which cue to "want?" Central amygdala opioid activation enhances and focuses incentive salience on a prepotent reward cue
Desire and dread from the nucleus accumbens: cortical glutamate and subcortical GABA differentially generate motivation and hedonic impact in the rat
Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell
The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer localizes in dynorphin/enkephalin neurons: increased high affinity state following amphetamine and in schizophrenia.
Hedonic and nucleus accumbens neural responses to a natural reward are regulated by aversive conditioning
Heterogeneous processing of amygdala and hippocampal inputs in the rostral and caudal subregions of the nucleus accumbens
Induction of hyperphagia and carbohydrate intake by μ-opioid receptor stimulation in circumscribed regions of frontal cortex
The dopamine d1-d2 receptor heteromer in striatal medium spiny neurons: evidence for a third distinct neuronal pathway in Basal Ganglia
The general and outcome-specific forms of Pavlovian-instrumental transfer are differentially mediated by the nucleus accumbens core and shell
Nucleus accumbens dopamine/glutamate interaction switches modes to generate desire versus dread: D(1) alone for appetitive eating but D(1) and D(2) together for fear
Evidence that the nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, and lateral hypothalamus are components of a lateralized feeding circuit
Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell
Which cue to 'want'? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking
A classically conditioned cocaine cue acquires greater control over motivated behavior in rats prone to attribute incentive salience to a food cue
Ipsilateral feeding-specific circuits between the nucleus accumbens shell and the lateral hypothalamus: regulation by glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes
Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens similarly amplify cue-triggered 'wanting' for reward: entire core and medial shell mapped as substrates for PIT enhancement
Nucleus accumbens GABAergic inhibition generates intense eating and fear that resists environmental retuning and needs no local dopamine
Sucrose Bobs and Quinine Gapes: horse (Equus caballus) responses to taste support phylogenetic similarity in taste reactivity
Behaviorally specific versus non-specific suppression of accumbens shell-mediated feeding by ipsilateral versus bilateral inhibition of the lateral hypothalamus
Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: what's so spatial about our methods?
Opioid hedonic hotspot in nucleus accumbens shell: mu, delta, and kappa maps for enhancement of sweetness "liking" and "wanting"
Loss of BDNF signaling in D1R-expressing NAc neurons enhances morphine reward by reducing GABA inhibition
Dopamine receptor blockade modulates the rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine via dissociable neuronal activity patterns in the nucleus accumbens
Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum
Long-lasting deficits in hedonic and nucleus accumbens reactivity to sweet rewards by sugar overconsumption during adolescence
Impaired mTORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons exaggerates high fat diet-induced hyperphagia
Effects of early and late neonatal bromocriptine treatment on hypothalamic neuropeptides, dopaminergic reward system and behavior of adult rats
Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking
Altered structural and effective connectivity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa in circuits that regulate energy and reward homeostasis
Mu opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell increases responsiveness of satiety-modulated lateral hypothalamus neurons
Brain fingerprints of olfaction: a novel structural method for assessing olfactory cortical networks in health and disease
The galanin receptor-3 antagonist, SNAP 37889, inhibits cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking and increases c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell of alcohol-preferring rats
Encoding prediction signals during appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in the primate lateral hypothalamus
Convergent neural connectivity in motor impulsivity and high-fat food binge-like eating in male Sprague-Dawley rats
The controlling role of nitric oxide within the shell of nucleus accumbens in the stress-induced metabolic disturbance.
Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not in adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity
Blunted leptin sensitivity during hedonic overeating can be reinstated by activating galanin 2 receptors (Gal2R) in the lateral hypothalamus
Insula to ventral striatal projections mediate compulsive eating produced by intermittent access to palatable food.
Differential rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and parabrachial complex: Functional characterization and the relevance of opioid systems and dopamine
Nucleus accumbens shell dopamine mediates outcome value, but not predicted value, in a magnitude decision-making task.
Centrifugal projections to the main olfactory bulb revealed by transsynaptic retrograde tracing in mice.
Mapping excessive "disgust" in the brain: Ventral pallidum inactivation recruits distributed circuitry to make sweetness "disgusting".
Melanin-concentrating hormone in rat nucleus accumbens or lateral hypothalamus differentially impacts morphine and food seeking behaviors
Epigenetic regulation of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in an activity-based rat model of anorexia nervosa.
Volumetric and shape analyses of subcortical structures in United States service members with mild traumatic brain injury
Sex specific effects of "junk-food" diet on calcium permeable AMPA receptors and silent synapses in the nucleus accumbens core.
Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Lateral and Medial Hypothalamus in Cocaine Dependence: An Exploratory Study
Nucleus Accumbens Shell Orexin-1 Receptors Are Critical Mediators of Binge Intake in Excessive-Drinking Individuals
Weight Change after Striatal/Capsule Deep Brain Stimulation Relates to Connectivity to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Hypothalamus
Neural connectivity between the hypothalamic supramammillary nucleus and appetite- and motivation-related regions of the rat brain.
Craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic injury: latest insights into consequent eating disorders and obesity
Association of Brain Reward Learning Response With Harm Avoidance, Weight Gain, and Hypothalamic Effective Connectivity in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa
Finding the balance between model complexity and performance: Using ventral striatal oscillations to classify feeding behavior in rats
Mediating Role of the Reward Network in the Relationship between the Dopamine Multilocus Genetic Profile and Depression
Cafeteria diet induces neuroplastic modifications in the nucleus accumbens mediated by microglia activation
Increased BOLD Signals in dlPFC Is Associated With Stronger Self-Control in Food-Related Decision-Making
Systemic Administration of Orexin a Loaded Liposomes Potentiates Nucleus Accumbens Shell Dopamine Release by Sucrose Feeding
Cooperative synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in a disynaptic limbic circuit drive stress-induced anhedonia and passive coping in mice.
Backstage of Eating Disorder-About the Biological Mechanisms behind the Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa.
Cobalt protoporphyrin decreases food intake, body weight, and the number of neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens in female rats.
Nucleus Accumbens Shell Orexin-1 Receptors Are Not Needed For Single-Bottle Limited Daily Access Alcohol Intake in C57BL/6 mice
Subcortical encoding of agent-relevant associative signals for adaptive social behavior in the macaque.
Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation
A free-choice high-fat diet modulates the effects of a sucrose bolus on the expression of genes involved in glucose handling in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens
Bi-directional encoding of context-based odors and behavioral states by the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.