In normal human hearts the left ventricle (LV) has up to 3 prominent trabeculations and is, thus, less trabeculated than the right ventricle. Rarely, more than 3 prominent trabeculations can be found at autopsy and by various imaging techniques in the LV. For this abnormality, different synonyms are used such as spongy myocardium, LV noncompaction, and LV hypertrabeculation (LVHT). In this review it is stated that: (1) LVHT has a higher prevalence than previously thought and the prevalence of LVHT seems to increase with the improvement of cardiac imaging; (2) because LVHT is most frequently diagnosed primarily by echocardiography, echocardiographers should be aware and trained to recognize this abnormality; (3) LVHT is frequently associated with other cardiac and extracardiac, particularly neuromuscular, disorders; (4) there are indications that the cause of LVHT is usually a genetic one and quite heterogeneous; and (5) controversies exist about diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, prognosis, origin, pathogenesis, and the necessity to classify LVHT as a distinct entity and cardiomyopathy by the World Health Organization.
Persisting myocardial sinusoids of both ventricles as an isolated anomaly: echocardiographic, angiographic, and pathologic anatomical findings
Frequency and location of prominent left ventricular trabeculations at autopsy in 474 normal human hearts: implications for evaluation of mural thrombi by two-dimensional echocardiography
Echocardiographic recognition and implications of ventricular hypertrophic trabeculations and aberrant bands
Identification of a rare congenital anomaly of the myocardium by two-dimensional echocardiography: persistence of isolated myocardial sinusoids
Observations on detecting left ventricular thrombus with two dimensional echocardiography: emphasis on avoidance of false positive diagnoses
Spatiotemporal relation between gap junctions and fascia adherens junctions during postnatal development of human ventricular myocardium
MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea): an X-linked phenotype distinct from Goltz syndrome
Isolated left ventricular abnormal trabeculation in adults is associated with neuromuscular disorders
Clinical features of isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium: long-term clinical course, hemodynamic properties, and genetic background
Synergistic roles of neuregulin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-I in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and cardiac chamber morphogenesis
Trabeculated embryonic myocardium shows rapid stress relaxation and non-quasi-linear viscoelastic behavior
Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis
Isolated left ventricular abnormal trabeculation is a cardiac manifestation of neuromuscular disorders
Effects of carvedilol on left ventricular function, mass, and scintigraphic findings in isolated left ventricular non-compaction
Defects of the heart, eye, and megakaryocytes in peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-binding protein (PBP) null embryos implicate GATA family of transcription factors
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction and association with additional cardiac abnormalities and neuromuscular disorders
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a subacute myocardial infarction
Cardiogenetics, neurogenetics, and pathogenetics of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction
Abiomed biventricular assist device as a bridge to transplantation in a 14-year-old with cardiomyopathy resulting from ventricular noncompaction
Fetal diagnosis of left-ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy in identical twins with discordant congenital heart disease
Cardiac MRI versus echocardiography in assessing noncompaction in children without neuromuscular disease
Value of cardiovascular MR in diagnosing left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and in discriminating between other cardiomyopathies
Anterior myocardial infarction in an adult patient with left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction
Young male with isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium presenting with atrial fibrillation and complete heart block
Angiographic diagnosis, prevalence and outcomes for left ventricular noncompaction in children with congenital cardiac disease
Cardiologic and neurologic implications of left ventricular hypertrabeculation, also termed noncompaction
Isolated non-compaction of the left ventricular myocardium in an adult treated with heart transplantation
Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy in children: characterisation of clinical status using tissue Doppler-derived indices of left ventricular diastolic relaxation
Noncompaction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: frustrated attempt to create a compensatory left ventricle?
Association of electrocardiographic abnormalities with cardiac findings and neuromuscular disorders in left ventricular hypertrabeculation/non-compaction
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction
Varied distributions of late gadolinium enhancement found among patients meeting cardiovascular magnetic resonance criteria for isolated left ventricular non-compaction
Digenic mutational inheritance of the integrin alpha 7 and the myosin heavy chain 7B genes causes congenital myopathy with left ventricular non-compact cardiomyopathy
Cardiologic and neurologic findings in left ventricular hypertrabeculation/non-compaction related to wall thickness, size and systolic function
Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy: lessons from the past to explain a diagnostic conundrum
Transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the delivery of a preeclamptic parturient with severe left ventricular noncompaction
Identification of benign form of ventricular non-compaction in competitive athletes by multiparametric evaluation
The Current Approach to Diagnosis and Management of Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy: Review of the Literature
Cardiac and neuromuscular implications of left bundle branch block in left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction
Role of device therapy in left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy: is it different from other causes of heart failure?
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy
Noncompaction in a HIV-positive with cortical blindness as initial manifestation of progressive multifocal leucencephalopathy
Ventricular dysfunction and number of non compacted segments in non compaction: non-independent predictors
Sex differences in left ventricular noncompaction in patients with and without neuromuscular disorders
The diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with noncompaction of ventricular myocardium
Atrial fibrillation in left ventricular noncompaction with and without neuromuscular disorders is associated with a poor prognosis
Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium complicated by thromboembolic cerebrovascular accident in a patient with essential thrombocythemia
Left ventricular restoration surgery for isolated left ventricular noncompaction: report of the first successful case
Complete heart block associated with noncompaction, nail-patella syndrome, and mitochondrial myopathy
Transient ischemic attack and electrocardiographic abnormalities revealing left ventricular noncompaction
Formation and Malformation of Cardiac Trabeculae: Biological Basis, Clinical Significance, and Special Yield of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessment
Transthoracic real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the diagnosis and description of noncompaction of ventricular myocardium
Diagnosing left ventricular noncompaction by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and its dependency on neuromuscular disorders
Left ventricular noncompaction in patients with β-thalassemia: uncovering a previously unrecognized abnormality
Complete atrioventricular block as the first manifestation of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium
Echocardiographic quantification of regional deformation helps to distinguish isolated left ventricular non-compaction from dilated cardiomyopathy
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation (noncompaction) with prominent calcifications in a patient with mannose-binding lectin deficiency and unclassified myopathy
Cardiologic and neurologic findings in left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction relating to echocardiographic indication
Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy in end-stage heart failure patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation
New classification scheme of left ventricular noncompaction and correlation with ventricular performance
Prevalence and characteristics of left ventricular noncompaction in a community hospital cohort of patients with systolic dysfunction
A combination of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction and muscular dystrophy in a stroke patient
Noncompaction cardiomyopathy: A new mechanism for mitral regurgitation with distinct clinical, echocardiographic features and pathological correlations
Assessment of left ventricular non-compaction in adults: side-by-side comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with echocardiography
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction coincidentally found in sporadic inclusion body myositis
Effects of β-blocker therapy on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of left ventricular noncompaction
Reply to the Letter to the Editor entitled "Acute heart failure from noncompaction requiring emergency heart transplantation"
Disappearance of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction after biventricular pacing in a patient with polyneuropathy
Noncompaction cardiomyopathy: The role of advanced multimodality imaging techniques in diagnosis and assessment
Hypertrabeculation is not distinct from noncompaction in neuromuscular and nonneuromuscular disorders
Increasing identification of isolated left ventricular non-compaction with cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a mini case series highlighting variable clinical presentation
Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy in Pediatric Patients: A Case Series of a Clinically Heterogeneous Disease
Tricuspid Atresia with Non-compaction: An Early Experience with Implications for Surgical Palliation
Reversible left ventricular trabeculations in pregnancy: is this sufficient to make the diagnosis of left ventricular noncompaction?
Thromboembolic complications of left ventricular noncompaction: case report and brief review of the literature
Transesophageal echocardiography and cardiovascular sources of embolism: implications for perioperative management
A case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium combined with situs ambiguous with polysplenia
The variable clinical presentation of, and outcome for, noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium in infants and children, an under-diagnosed cardiomyopathy
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction with PMP22 duplication-based Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A
Congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium in an asymptomatic young child
Decreased Deformation in Asymptomatic Children with Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction and Normal Ejection Fraction
Verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia in a patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction
Non-compaction cardiomyopathy: prevalence, prognosis, pathoetiology, genetics, and risk of cardioembolism
Co-Phenotype of Left Ventricular Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy and Atypical Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Association With R169Q, a Ryanodine Receptor Type 2 Missense Mutation
A rare case of isolated left ventricular non-compaction. Importance of image technology and disease awareness for a correct diagnosis
Left ventricular trabeculae: quantification in different cardiac diseases and impact on left ventricular morphological and functional parameters assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance
Right ventricular hypertrabeculation associated with double-outlet left ventricle: exaggeration of a normal pattern or right ventricular cardiomyopathy?
Atrial parasystole in left ventricular noncompaction: a morphofunctional study by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging
Left Ventricular Noncompaction: Diagnostic Approach, Prognostic Evaluation, and Management Strategies
Eight years follow-up of isolated ventricular noncompaction in elderly patient under DCM like clinical condition
Echocardiographic and clinical markers of left ventricular ejection fraction and moderate or greater systolic dysfunction in left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy
Differences in fetal and postnatal presentations of isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium
Impairment of myocardial perfusion correlates with heart failure severity in patients with non-compaction cardiomyopathy
Biventricular imaging markers to predict outcomes in non-compaction cardiomyopathy: a machine learning study
Do children with left ventricular noncompaction and a noncompaction-to-compaction ratio < 2 have a better prognosis?
Complementary Role of Echocardiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Intraventricular synchronism assessment by gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy. Does cardiomyopathy type influence results?
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